Methodological foundations of the geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of a tourist destination

Methodological foundations of the geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of a tourist destination

The methodological aspects of the geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of the destination are stated. The mechanism's methodology is based on the theory of geoeconomics, the doctrine of destinations and the concept of polarization of the tourist space. The geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of the destination is a system of methods for managing the tourist complex aimed at improving the position of the destination in the polarized tourist space and the formation of a hierarchically full-structured destination. Practical developments in this area include the experience of substantiating an action plan to promote Belarus as a tourist destination and the practice of strategic planning for the development of regional destinations.

Key words: geoeconomics, destination, competitiveness, geoeconomic mechanism, tourism.

Introduction

Geoeconomics in the system of modern science as a separate area has gained relevance due to the development of global economic processes, participation in which determines the success of the development of national economies, interstate entities and individual business entities, from large structures (for example, TNCs) to small and medium enterprises. Countries and regions are involved in competition with each other in various spatial and sectoral systems, incl. and tourism, which is characterized by the presence of backbone flows of tourists and excursionists, their funds, seasonal labor force, investments in the hospitality industry, tourist goods, as well as cycles of consumption of tourist services stretched in space and time, etc. However, the aspect of tourism is practically not touched upon in the Belarusian geoeconomic studies. Tourism is not singled out as a geo-economic priority of Belarus and is not seen as a tool to improve the geo-economic situation of the country [1].

Issues of tourism, the tourism industry and the intersectoral tourist complex are bypassed when studying the national economy: the tourism sector is not considered in the sections of economic complexes of the national economic system and foreign economic potential [2]. Aspects of tourism are only fragmentarily mentioned in the text of the National Strategy for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development of the Republic of Belarus until 2020 and are not accompanied by economic assessments and forecasts [3]. And this is despite the fact that the indicator of tourist activity of the population can act as the most important indicator of the quality of life in the country. The new National Strategy for Sustainable Socio-Economic Development until 2030 already contains a section "Tourism" [4], but the indicators laid down in it are far from the parameters of sustainable development of this sector. All this is the result of underestimating tourism as a factor in the country's socio-economic development, despite the fact that the Belarusian model of development declares a commitment to the noospheric economy [5], which is based not so much on material wealth as on human potential.

A modern developing person is a traveling person for the purpose of recovery, recreation, treatment, education, physical development, emotional recovery, and raising the scientific level. In the management of the country's economy, in addition to underestimating the socio-economic effect, there are no approaches to using tourism as a compensatory tool that mitigates the effects of a currency crisis or the negative impact of economic sanctions, which are a geo-economic method of influencing individual countries. For example, the devaluation of the national currency makes the national tourism product more affordable and can be considered as a method to stimulate inbound tourism, but it is not used in the practice of promoting Belarus as a destination to foreign markets and is not supported by marketing efforts. Other examples are the absence of government management decisions to stimulate inbound shopping tourism as a compensator for Russian sanctions against products from the EU or to stimulate retail sales of Belarusian-made automotive fuel in border areas as a compensator for the unfavorable pricing environment for oil products exports to Russia. On the contrary, for the citizens of Belarus, restrictions were imposed on the frequency of travel abroad by personal vehicles, while no one considered the country's economic losses. Western sanctions in response to Russian foreign policy resulted in losses in the Belarusian economy, and Belarus could take advantage of the "hidden export" of tourism to compensate for these losses. These examples show that the geo-economic potential of tourism is absolutely not taken into account in the management system of the national economy, since there are no fundamental mechanisms to determine the strategic directions of tourism development in Belarus.

Therefore, the purpose of this article is to create a methodology for a geo-economic mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of Belarus as a destination.

The methodology of the geoeconomic mechanism for increasing the competitiveness of the destination includes a system of concepts, principles, techniques, methods and means of their implementation in scientific and practical activities aimed at optimizing the spatial and economic processes in which the destination is involved, taking into account the patterns of formation and development tourist space. The novelty of the developed methodology lies in the consolidation of the theoretical provisions of geoeconomics, the scientific doctrine of the destination and expansion of the problem field of geoeconomics from the global and national levels to the regional and local levels into a single logical scheme.

Main body

The place of geoeconomics in modern science was determined in the process of its development as a separate area of ​​scientific knowledge. The historical aspect of the emergence and development of geoeconomics was analyzed in detail by E. Halizhak [6]. He did not set the goal of periodizing the history of geoeconomics, but concentrated on the evolution of the content of the subject. On the basis of his research, we will highlight the main stages of the formation of geoeconomics:

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