How an anthill works, a real fortress

The structure of the anthill

Many people at least once in their lives have come across ants in one way or another and have seen what an anthill looks like. It is a small hill, towering above ground level, covered with many twigs, leaves and blades of grass. Little residents of this house are constantly scurrying next to him. But not many people know how an anthill works from the inside.

Choosing a place for the anthill

The founder of the anthill and all its future inhabitants is the female queen of ants. After mating with a male, she flies away from her home to establish a new colony. In a wooded area, the queen ant chooses secluded places for nesting next to trees, in old rotten stumps.

Finding a suitable place, the uterus pulls out the burrow and lays the first clutch of eggs there. Having raised her first offspring on her own, the queen is no longer responsible for the further fate of the anthill. Its task is constant reproduction, and working ants take care of it and future generations.

Gradually, the ants build up a hill above the ground, which provides heating of the upper levels of the anthill from the sun. Twigs, leaves, sticks, pieces of earth are what ants build an anthill from. By laying the roofing material in a special way, ants protect the roof of the house from leaks and winds.


In the steppes and deserts, the anthill does not have a part towering above the ground. Strong winds and a scorching sun made it necessary to build houses deep underground.

Internal structure of the anthill

The inside of the anthill is a set of passages, corridors, chambers and compartments designed for specific purposes. The rooms located on the upper levels of the anthill are heated by the sun in summer and used as a solarium for adult insects.

The main building material for the interior decoration of an ant house is a mixture of soil with humus, particles of bark and everything that the construction ants bring with them. A large number of passages connecting different rooms provide ventilation in the anthill.

At the middle levels of the ant dwelling there are premises with pastures for aphids, pantries with food supplies, compartments for collecting garbage, and even there is a cemetery for ants, where dead tribesmen are brought. The main entrances to the anthill are also at the middle level, that is, at the foot of the outer hill.

"... They are very similar to us, they grow mushrooms, breed aphids like milking cows, send soldiers to war, spray chemicals to frighten the enemy, take prisoners, use child labor and constantly exchange information ..." <

Today, in simple language, understandable for children, we will try to tell you how an anthill works.

How does an anthill work inside, what is its structure?

Sectional diagram of the structure of the anthill with the designation of functional chambers. Ant colony structure.

Most often there are dome-shaped anthills, but sometimes ants prefer to settle in rotten tree trunks, large old stumps. In regions with extremely hot climates (for example, deserts), insects build their homes exclusively underground.

From the inside, the anthill looks different, but the structure of the selection and organization of specialized chambers is characteristic of any nest of ants.

Indoor cameras can be divided into the following

  • "solarium" - a small chamber under the very dome of the anthill, insects bask in it in the warm season;
  • "wintering chamber" - located below the soil level, in it the ants survive the cold, plunging into suspended animation;
  • "royal chamber" or "queen's room" - here is the uterus, which is engaged in laying eggs;
  • "grain barn" or "granary" - intended for storing seeds of herbs and trees;
  • "kindergarten" or "nursery" - chambers in which eggs ripen and ant larvae are born;
  • "meat pantry" or "Refrigerator" - they store the corpses of insects, worms and caterpillars.
  • "cowshed" - where the ants keep and raise aphids.
  • “graveyard” is where waste and deceased individuals are located. It is significantly removed from the anthill, since the ants understand that corpses and waste are a source of disease and infection;

Each mature insect has a clear idea of ​​the location of the cameras. The enlargement of the anthill leads to the expansion of the existing chambers and the construction of new premises.

The depth of an anthill underground can reach up to 2 meters and has an organized complex structure. And the aboveground part can be from 30 cm to 2 m high. It all looks like a huge city.

The depth and structure of a typical anthill is amazing. The interior of this amazing structure consists of large fragments of branches. Between them are many galleries leading to individual chambers, which is a rather complex device.

The height of the structure varies from 30 cm to 2 m, the underground part most often exceeds the surface area. The outer covering consists of small twigs, needles, grains of sand and reliably protects ants from moisture, wind and cold. The structure of the underground anthill of the garden ant is similar to the forest ant, however, on the surface it is only a small sandy mound.

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