Head of Orienteering
Orienteering competitions consist in passing a distance with a map and a compass and marking at control points (CP) located on the ground. An orienteer athlete needs to have high physical qualities, know the topography perfectly, master the compass perfectly and confidently read the map, quickly and correctly choose the path of movement in unfamiliar terrain, and have high volitional qualities.
Orienteering in our country is a young, actively developing sport. At present, it is firmly included in the standards of the TRP complex and in the calendars of competitions of various ranks - from school to all-Union, which have been held since 1981 in the rank of the USSR championship.
Competitions are subdivided into the following types: orientation in a given direction, on a marked track, by choice. Relays can be held for all types. Participants cover the distance jogging or skiing. According to the time of the competition, there are day and night, one-day and multi-day, and by the nature of the offset - personal (the results are counted separately for each participant), team (the results of individual participants are counted for the team as a whole), personal-team (the results are counted separately for each participant and team in overall).
Orientation in a given direction is the passage of checkpoints marked on the map and located on the ground in a given order. For the purpose of dispersing the participants, it is allowed to apply a different order of passage of separate parts of the distance by different participants, but in the end everyone must go the same distance. Single start is recommended for participants.
The result is determined by the time spent on covering the distance from the moment of the technical start to the finish. If the participant violated the control order or missed the control, his result will not be counted.
Orientation on a marked route is passing a distance with a map of the location of the control points installed on the route. Most often, competitions are held in winter. The location of the control point is drawn on the map only at the next point by piercing it at the appropriate point with a punch or a needle. In the latter case, the puncture is marked with a colored pencil available on the checkpoint, crossing it crosswise. The last checkpoint is applied at the "line of the last checkpoint".
For a mistake in placing control over more than 2 mm, the participant receives a penalty time - 1 min. for every complete or incomplete 2 mm. The maximum penalty that can be imposed for an error in inflicting one control is 3 minutes. At distances of mass discharges, the maximum penalty is 5 minutes. The result of the participant is determined by the sum of the time spent on the distance and the penalty time. Ski orienteering championships are held every two years.
In optional orienteering, the participant at the start receives a map with marked control points. Each control is marked with a number that represents its "value" in points. The ultimate goal of the participants in this competition is to score the most points by looking for a control in a certain time, the same for everyone (usually 1 hour). Each athlete independently chooses the most valuable and realistic route for himself. Passing all checkpoints is optional.
Elements of orienteering
By orienteering technique we mean the techniques and methods of working with a compass and a map, as well as measuring distances in order to determine your location or move to a desired point in the terrain.
The following orienteering technique elements can be distinguished:
- card reading - understanding and volumetric representation of what is depicted on it using conventional signs used for sports cards; - identification of landmarks on the ground and comparing them with a map, or vice versa; - work with a compass when determining the location of landmarks on the ground, for orienting the map and determining the directions of movement; - measuring distances on the map and on the ground.
We do not highlight here some of the technical elements that make up the subject of orienteering. These include, for example, a mark at a checkpoint. This important point should always be under the close attention of the orienteer, since only a clearly executed mark indicates the correct passage of the control.
Despite the fact that all athletes starting at the same distance make the same number of marks using the same technical means, they spend different time on this operation (Table 10).
Table 10. Indicators of the actions of orienteering athletes during the competition Action According to X. Enkvnstu (1969) According to A. Kivistik (1971) Masters Experienced athletes Newcomers Masters Candidates for the master Mark at the CP, sec 451034 Reading the card at the CP, sec 7246068 Technical stop stop/km2 - 361068 Duration of a technical stop, sec 4101346 The ratio of the time of all stops to the results of participants,% 730813 Effective speed, min/km 6,58,47,38
As can be seen from the table, experienced athletes need 2-3 times less time per mark than beginners. In total, on a track with 15-20 KPs, masters of sports spend at least a minute on marks, which is about 1% of the time recommended by the rules of the competition for winners at men's distances of the highest class.
The loss of time is mainly due to the inability to correctly prepare and unfold the map, to outline in advance the “cell” in which the composting will be carried out, etc. The practice of these skills can be carried out on the simplest training tracks with a large number of control points , in cross training or included as one of the elements in circuit training. Moreover, it is recommended to try out various marking tools that can be found in competitions: punching machines (numerous models), colored pencils, passwords. Reducing the time spent near the checkpoint is advisable not only to improve your own result, but also for tactical reasons, since an athlete who is in the checkpoint zone unmasks it and makes it easier for opponents to find.
The ability to read a map is a complex technical skill, the development and improvement of which continues throughout the entire orienteering class. In the process of studying conventional signs, exercises with maps in the classroom and on the ground, participation in competitions, athletes improve in understanding the image on maps of landscape areas of different nature.
When practicing in a classroom with volumetric models or on the ground, another important skill should gradually develop - identifying landmarks on the ground and comparing them to a map, and vice versa. This is the basis for determining your location on the map and on the terrain and is the essence of orienteering in general and orienteering in particular.
Numerous exercises contribute to the memorization of symbols and the acquisition of map reading skills, for example, topographic dictations, topographic lotto games, coloring black and white maps, tracing maps, finding preset conventional symbols or time landmarks on maps. One of the most effective and comprehensive ways to quickly master the skills of reading a map, identifying landmarks on the ground, measuring distances and directions is the simplest topographic survey of the area.
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