The concept of cycling is not only a sport, but also the lifestyle of people who love extreme sports, constant competition, or just a healthy lifestyle. Everyone chooses a direction to their liking, whether it be: cycling, overcoming artificial or natural obstacles, performing a variety of tricks, etc.
Cycling has the following main disciplines:
Some of these disciplines are Olympic sports. Cycling can also include cycling games: bike polo and bike ball.
Special organizations have been created by regulation and leadership in cycling. Internationally, it is the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), which was founded in 1900. In our country, these responsibilities lie with the Russian Cycling Federation, which began its activities in 1990.
A type of cycling in which cyclists compete to cover a distance at speed on highways. Road cycling attracts the most sponsorship and is considered a commercial discipline. The Olympic types of road racing include individual and group racing. For non-Olympic sports, criterium, multi-day race, team race, uphill race.
The date of origin of cycling in Russia is considered to be 1883. Then official competitions were held in Moscow at 1.5 and 7.5 versts. The athlete from St. Petersburg Blok Yu became the winner in the race for 1.5 versts. Cyclists from England, America and Austria took part in those competitions.
Cycling tourism (cycling tourism) is one of the types of tourism in which the bicycle serves as the main or only means of transportation. The concept of "cycling tourism" is ambiguous and refers both to one of the types of outdoor activities and to a variety of sports tourism.
Cycling as an active holiday 
Cycling as an active holiday consists in cycling routes containing general tourist and cycling tourism specific objects of an excursion nature. The difficulty of such hikes can range from simple to extremely high, and routes are laid out to take advantage of the advantages that a bicycle provides for moving quickly along the route. The main differences between such cycling trips and sports cycling tourism, focused on obtaining sports grades and titles, are the refusal to deliberately complicate the route, dividing the hikes into categories of difficulty and combining the sports component of the trip with visiting cultural and natural attractions. Among the types of outdoor activities, cycling tourism is the leader in terms of travel speed and length of routes.
Sports Cycling 
Sports cycling tourism is included, along with other types of tourism, in the Federation of Sports Tourism of Russia and the Federation of Sports Tourism of Ukraine, which have commissions for all types of sports tourism, and various tourist clubs.
There are six categories of hiking difficulty in cycling sports tourism. The first category is the simplest, the sixth is the most difficult. The difficulty category of the hike is determined by the methodology for categorizing bike trips. The minimum length of a bike trip of the first category of difficulty is 300 km.
In the absence of y/d N = 4.00m
Most bikers perceive cyclists as calm riders, whose bicycles are hung with trunks, bags and various bells and whistles such as bells, footboards, fenders. It so happened that for travelers, a bicycle is primarily a means of transportation and transportation of road belongings.
Of course, the spirit of cycling with a constant change of unique landscapes and road adventures often overshadows the pleasure of the ride itself. But, sitting on a combat vehicle of some seasoned traveler, a simple biker or cyclist will think with horror how such a cycle rickshaw can even be ridden.
After watching most of the well-made films about cycling trips, it becomes clear why this type of tourism is popular among pensioners (which is good), and active young people prefer to try out at city dumps.
It's no secret that driving a loaded bike is not at all the same as rushing a good bike along mountain paths or flying the next takeoff of the road on a highway. If one of the alpine skiers had to go down with a heavy backpack, then he knows that this requires a completely different technique.
Riding light is a thousand times more pleasant than transporting goods, even if it is designed to give you additional comfort. If on the way there are obstacles that for some time turn a cyclist into a pedestrian or a climber, then the standard weight of a bicycle (13-15 kg) with a load (20-25 kg) sometimes becomes a heavy weight.
Everyone who has walked a sports bike five is familiar with the concept of "shuttle", when he is ready to pay dearly in order to feel like in a regular LDPE.
So the problem is clear. Where is the exit? There is no absolute way out, unless of course you count on a light trip with a compact bag of money (or a bank card) and an escort bus through densely populated Europe, but there are two parallel solutions. The first is reasonable minimization of the bike weight and load, the second is its rational placement and replenishment, in relation to a specific route.
Cyclists have identified several styles of modern cycling tourism. Among them are expeditionary and aggressive. The first style is a multi-day style over a difficult, in their understanding, terrain, burdened with numerous bivouac equipment.
The second is the most intense one, where we would be happy to organize full-fledged field overnight stays, but without losing the pace of movement, they cannot, and the attachment to overnight stays in housing greatly narrows the geography.
The Bike for You style allows you to combine these directions, enriching them with elements of other types of tourism (primarily walking and mountain tourism), because the bike and cargo from now on do not interfere with any movement.
Briefly about the bike. The best modern components allow you to assemble a completely suitable machine weighing less than 10 kg. At the same time, the reliability of such a bike, for example, in comparison with the "Tourist" or "Olympia", will make it possible to abandon the mass of spare units and parts.
A modern kit for an autonomous field overnight, consisting of a place in a tent, a sleeping bag, a rug, a burner, dishes, and a flashlight, will fit into the couple of kilograms saved on a bicycle. You can live, you say, but it will be more convincing if you show you where to find such equipment.
Recently, when it became possible to find a quality bike for tourism, there are many more cycling tourism fans. But how to choose a good car, which will pass along mountain paths without unnecessary shaking and stops, and overcome bumps of country roads, and ride on the highway with a breeze.
A hiking bike must be durable and comfortable
Regardless of whether your future route is laid along steep mountain passes, along forest roads or along an expressway, you should choose a bike for a hike based on the following general principles:
If at least one of these five requirements is not met, then no matter what famous brand the bike is, it will not be suitable for a long trip.
There are only four categories of bicycles that are more or less suitable for cycling tourism. They all have their own characteristics, which should be considered more closely.
The most common option. Low rise, 26-inch wheel diameter, front shock, straight handlebars. All these characteristics indicate that this is primarily a mountain bike, which is also a good idea to travel along forest paths. On the highway, it also behaves well, but if the lion's share of paved roads in the route, you should opt for a faster model.
Relatively recently, the designers decided to improve the classic Mountain bike. The front fork was lengthened and the wheels were installed with a diameter of 29 inches. Some more changes were made, but they are invisible to non-specialists. It turned out to be Niner. The landing remained the same, the weight, albeit not much, but increased, the elongated fork, designed to soften the ride, actually takes up the energy of the hands very much. The car turned out to be heavy, bulky and not very convenient for transportation. True, due to the increase in the diameter of the wheels, the ride became smoother, but this is perhaps the only plus that does not at all make this model suitable for cycling.
A tourist (touring) bike is intended for long cycling trips, the route of which mainly passes along asphalt roads, but can be diluted with unpaved areas and small off-road conditions.
In a sense, "touring is a smart compromise between road, city and mountain biking, incorporating their key features." As a result, a special type of bike has appeared that provides: the maximum level of comfort during long trips, excellent maneuverability and riding dynamics, the ability to transport luggage, and also not afraid of leaving on small off-road or forest paths.
The peculiarities of the operation of touring bicycles and the tasks they perform, of course, impose the need to use in their design a number of solutions that distinguish tourist bicycles from other types of cycling equipment.
The differences primarily concern the following elements:
Choosing a bike is not an easy task. The main points of this process, including the selection of a suitable size, are discussed in detail in a separate publication "how to choose a bike", and below we will consider the features of choosing a touring bike.
First of all, you need to decide on the material of the frame. There are a wide variety of touring models on the market today with frames made of steel, aluminum, carbon and even titanium.
After choosing a suitable frame, pay attention to the wheels. The main dimensions used on the touring are 26- and 28-inch wheels:
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