Foreign economic activity of enterprises (FEA) at the beginning of the XXI century is the basis of the entire world economy. Considering that this concept affects many industries, it is necessary to understand in more detail what foreign economic activity is. For the import and export of goods, as most people imagine it, is only a small part.
If we translate this term into a more understandable language, it means, first of all, the exchange of goods, services and information between various structures in the international market. It includes a wide range of services:
The areas of foreign economic activity include:
Based on the areas of activity, we can conclude that foreign economic activity is an area where professionalism and extensive knowledge in various fields is needed.
Based on the directions, the following forms of foreign economic activity stand out:
Given the variety of forms of foreign economic activity, the question of what it is is especially relevant today. For now, when this sphere has ceased to be a monopoly of the state, it is developing and expanding at a tremendous pace.
International tourism is one of the most important branches of international trade in services. At the same time, it is one of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy, one of the most profitable types of business, attracting large investments, providing growing employment and income, including in the state budgets of countries. In fact, in the modern world economy, elements of a global tourism system are being formed, which includes international networks of hotels, air, water, land tourist transportation and computer systems for booking places.
The growing demand for tourist services around the world is primarily due to socio-economic reasons (general growth in income and free time, an increase in the duration of paid vacations, a sufficient level of pension provision, a change in the composition of families towards a decrease in the number of children, etc.), as well as progress in the development of transport, making it cheaper and more accessible, removing or weakening currency restrictions, and liberalizing the visa regime.
Like other sectors of the economy, international tourism is subject to both international and national regulation. Leading intergovernmental organization responsible for tourism development. The UN General Assembly has recognized the World Tourism Organization, which acts as the successor to the International Union of Official Tourism Organizations.
The World Tourism Organization includes the following categories of membership:
1) full members (sovereign states, including Russia and most of the CIS countries);
2) associate members (territories that are not independently responsible for their foreign policy);
3) affiliated members (intergovernmental, non-governmental and commercial organizations and associations operating in a field of interest to tourism).
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The World Tourism Organization has adopted a number of declarations and other documents on the organization of international tourism, including the Charter on Tourism and the Code of Tourist Conduct, publishes statistical guides and forecasts, and offers information databanks for the tourism business. She fixed a number of concepts important for international tourism (such as "tourism", "tourist", etc.).
Tourism is defined as active recreation, influencing health promotion and associated with movement outside the permanent place of residence. In international tourism, the concepts of "tourist (visitor)" and "excursionist" are distinguished. An international tourist is any person who stays on the territory of another state for at least 24 hours, but not more than one year for recreational, educational, professional, business, sports, religious and other purposes, without engaging in paid activities in the country of temporary residence.
This definition draws the line between tourism and economic migration. The status of a tourist under international agreements creates a number of benefits for the traveler, which include a simplified visa regime and discounts on payment for transport services and accommodation. A traveler who has spent less than 24 hours abroad is considered an excursionist, and this category is widespread, especially in the countries of Western Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean.
Tourism is a whole range of services united in the tourism industry - a set of hotels and other temporary accommodation facilities (motels, campgrounds, etc.), catering facilities, facilities and entertainment facilities, educational, business, sports and other purposes. The tourism business itself is an integral part of the tourism industry.
Heading: 17. Domestic and foreign trade
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Kozlova, N. V. The main directions of foreign economic activity of the enterprise/N. V. Kozlova, Yu. A. Sotnik. - Text: direct//Topical issues of economic sciences: materials of the II Intern. scientific. conf. (Ufa, April 2013). - T. 0. - Ufa: Summer, 2013 .-- S. 112-114. - URL: . u/conf/econ/archive/76/3702/(date accessed: 17.2.021).
At all historical stages of the development of Russia, foreign economic activity influenced the solution of economic problems at various levels: the national economy as a whole, individual regions, associations, enterprises.
Foreign economic relations were a catalyst for economic transformations in Russia. They actively influence the formation of market structures and mechanisms in the country, contribute to the initial accumulation of capital, the creation of a competitive environment and the determination of market motivation in domestic business, its introduction to foreign business experience.
Today, profound changes are taking place in the structure of foreign economic activity of the Russian Federation, as well as in the entire economy of the country.
If earlier foreign economic activity, and hence the import of goods and services, was a monopoly sphere of state activity, today the situation has changed: the Russian Federation has taken the path of liberalizing foreign trade, opening free access to participation in it for enterprises and organizations and other business entities.
Issues of legal protection of domestic exporters and importers have become relevant in connection with the procedure for Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization - an institution that regulates economic relations between countries in the field of international trade, in accordance with the principles of maximum openness of national markets. However, Russian businessmen should be able to defend their own interests on their own, in which knowledge of the “rules of the game” on the world market, its peculiarities and traditions will help them.
Since the liberalization of foreign economic activity (FEA), increased attention has been paid to the organization and management of foreign trade operations, both at a theoretical and practical level. The legislative base in this area of economic activity is developing very dynamically in connection with the global trends in the unification of the methodological base of international trade, the strengthening of integration processes, the emergence of new forms and methods of trade.
Tens of thousands of enterprises and tens of thousands of entrepreneurs and civil servants are directly involved in foreign economic activity. Unfortunately, many of the participants are not familiar with the basics, let alone the intricacies of foreign economic activity.
Foreign economic activity of enterprises is a sphere of economic activity associated with international industrial, scientific and technical cooperation, export and import of products, entry of the enterprise to the foreign market. It is a consequence of the development of foreign economic relations as a set of directions, forms, methods and means of trade, economic, scientific and technical cooperation, as well as monetary, financial and credit relations of the state with foreign countries in order to rationally use the advantages of the international division of labor and international economic relations to solve national economic and foreign policy tasks.