Each country has its own, sometimes unique, tourism resources that are of great value to tourists. In their economic essence, they form the basis of tourist rent, making this or that country more or less attractive to tourists. So in Europe, the richest countries in terms of tourist resources are Italy, France, Spain, Great Britain, Greece, Switzerland, which for many years have been leaders in terms of the number of tourists received annually. However, in these countries, most of the tourist resources are concentrated in individual cities and localities, where the main flows of incoming tourists are concentrated. These cities and towns are commonly referred to as tourist centers.
The tourist vocabulary also uses the concept of a tourist area. A tourist zone is a certain territory that does not have clear boundaries, but has general specific tourist resources that can generate sustained interest from a specific category of tourists. So, for example, the French and Italian Riviera, Turkish Antalya can be considered tourist areas on the Mediterranean coast.
Russia possesses an exceptionally huge number of diverse climatic, ethnographic (traditions and customs of peoples) and man-made (cultural and historical heritage) resources that can satisfy the tastes and interests of the most discerning tourists. In accordance with the methodology adopted by the State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation, there are 13 tourist zones of federal significance in the Russian Federation. Ismaev D. Organization of inbound tourism to the Russian Federation: Textbook. - M. MATGR, 2005.
It includes the Kaliningrad region, where tourist resources are represented by historical monuments in Kaliningrad and a number of other cities, as well as opportunities for tourist recreation on the Baltic Sea coast, especially in the area of the Curonian Spit, declared a National Natural Park.
Northwest tourist area.
It includes: St. Petersburg; Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda regions; Republic of Karelia. Tourist resources are represented by the most interesting cultural and historical monuments in St. Petersburg, Novgorod, Pskov, Vologda, the monuments of Valaam and Kizhi, the possibilities of cruise travel and ecological tours, treatment at the resort of marcial waters (Karelia), amateur hunting and fishing. Of particular interest among tourists are the possibilities of organizing winter recreation and entertainment in this zone. State nature reserves "Kivach", "Kostomushkinskiy", "Nizhne-Svirskiy", as well as the Valdai National Natural Park have been created and operate in this zone.
Central tourist area
It includes: Moscow, Moscow, Vladimir, Kaluga, Ryazan, Smolensk, Tver, Tula, Yaroslavl regions. This zone stands out for the largest number of various tourist resources, including the cultural and historical values of Moscow, as the capital of the Russian state, historical monuments of the cities of the "Golden Ring", as well as the cities of Smolensk, Ryazan, Kaluga. This area is also rich in natural resources that can satisfy the varied interests of nature lovers, hunting and fishing. As well as in the North-West zone in the Central tourist zone there are good opportunities for organizing winter types of tourism. This zone includes the Oksky (biosphere) and Prioksky-Terasny state reserves, national natural parks: "Meschera" and "Smolenskoye Poozerie". Romanov A., Sahakyants R. Geography of Tourism: Textbook. - M .: Soviet sport, 2002.
South Russian tourist zone
Domestic tourism, unlike international, does not involve crossing the state border and, therefore, does not require compliance with tourist formalities. It is one of the migration flows of people within the country of permanent residence for tourist purposes. Such trips are relatively easy to organize, because the national currency, which people use on a daily basis, remains a means of circulation for such tourists, and their native language remains a means of communication. According to some estimates, the share of tourism is 80-90% of all tourist trips, and the total expenditure on domestic tourism is 5-10 times higher than the expenditure of tourists on international travel.
Despite significant differences, international and domestic tourism are closely related. Domestic tourism acts as a kind of catalyst for international tourism. It promotes the development of new recreational resources and regions, the creation of a basic tourist infrastructure, the training of specialists, and thereby - the revitalization of integration processes and the formation of a single world tourist space.
recently, due to the simplification of tourist formalities, there has been some convergence of international and domestic tourism. The first step in this direction was the agreement signed in June 1985 in Sheng-gen between. The Netherlands ,. Belgium ,. Germany ,. France and. Luxembourg on the phased abolition of passport and customs control for its citizens at common borders. Later, other European countries joined the agreement (I usually call it in. Schengen). The signing of the agreement became a significant stage in the formation of military-political and monetary-economic unions of 12 European states. The transition to the back of the monetary unit - the euro, free movement of goods, capital, services and labor, that is, the actual abolition of borders, opens up broad prospects for the further growth of tourist flows and the exchange of them.
Citizens of countries such as. France,. Germany,. Spain,. Portugal,. Belgium,. Netherlands,. Luxembourg,. Austria as well. Italy and. Greece, can move freely without burdening themselves with any formalities, and, given the small European distances, a weekend trip to a neighboring country is becoming a rule of good form. An increase in the arrival of tourists to these countries from remote regions is also expected. Asia-Pacific.
Domestic, inbound and outbound tourism can be combined in different ways to form, in addition to international, national tourism and tourism within the country
. National tourism includes domestic and outbound tourism and is related to the category of national production (gross national product)
Domestic tourism covers domestic and inbound tourism and corresponds to total domestic tourism consumption, i.e. Total expenditures of domestic and foreign tourists <
Concepts of international, national tourism and tourism within the country offered by UNWTO, can be used on all four levels: global - on the scale of the planet, regional - relationships of countries, state and local - within a separate region any country.@
Classify tourism can be in a variety of features, the most important of which includes: the purpose of the travel, seasonal characteristics, territorial characteristics, individual requirements of customers, finance customers' possibilities. Moreover, such classifications are often conditional because it is not always possible to clearly distinguish the listed features.
Among the researchers there is no unanimity regarding the sectoral structure of tourism, however, most of them allocate travels for leisure and entertainment, business tourism, religious tourism, medical and wellness and and.
Desert with goats and camels. But tourism is one of the modern areas of activity in which Men-Tuaregs manifest themselves as drivers, guides, drivers, chefs. These people bring plastic, rhythm and plots of other reality on the Sahara. This is not just the staff. These people will let you like you in your life, smile to everyone and everyone will be called by name. Desertification seemingly - a global environmental problem. But here you can find rational grain. It is extreme tourism, which is one of the elements, thanks to which the desert is transformed and begins to serve for the benefit of a person.
The capital of Algeria is the city of Algeria. The beautiful Embankment of Algeria is a mirror mapping of Marseille. Algerians rest in a wonderful Liberte Park surrounded by tropical trees and many colors.
Southeast and South Africa is a relatively young, dynamically developing region of international tourism. The following countries include the most popular destinations here: Kenya, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda, Seychelles, Mauritius. You can also talk about other tourist destinations, in particular Namibia.
Kenya, located in the east of Africa, is washed by the Indian Ocean. According to physico-geographical indicators, Kenya consists of several zones. The Great Rift Valley stretches from the north to south. This is the most beautiful part of the country, littered with lakes, on the shores of which the largest colony of pink flamingos lives in the world. Rift valley goes to Savannah, which is used as an endless pasture. In terms of tourism, Kenya is primarily known for its national parks (Masai Mara, Ambo-seli, Tsavo). Masai Mara National Park is a continuation of the famous Serengeti National Park (Tanzania). One of the most memorable sights that can be seen in the Amboseli National Park is a huge herd of 600-700 elephants. Tourists also get acquainted with endemic species of fauna, such as the endangered black rhinoceros. Tsavo is the largest national park in Kenya, which covers an area of about 21 thousand square meters. km. It is located in the southeastern part of the country and is divided into western and eastern parts by the Nairobi-Mombasa road and railways. The dream of every tourist is the highest point in Africa - Mount Kilimanjaro, covered with snowfields in the upper part. Kilimanjaro is located on the Kenya-Tanzania border. The natural complexes of Kilimanjaro replace each other according to the schemes of altitudinal zonation.
A promising type of tourism for Kenya is ecological tourism. Thus, according to some estimates, the development of ecological tourism in Kenya
has increased the value of travelable land from $ 0.8 to $ 40 per hectare. The development of tourism can complement the traditional agricultural specialization of the country, which is known in the international division of labor primarily as a supplier of agricultural crops - coffee, tea, rice, cotton, etc.
The capital of Kenya, Nairobi, is the largest city in East Africa, has a lot of attractions: the National Museum, the snake farm. Nairobi is considered one of the most beautiful cities in Africa. It should be noted that travel to African countries is not safe
in terms of infection with infectious diseases. Since 1999
In Kenya, malaria outbreaks have led to a nationwide epidemic. More than 100 thousand people fell ill with the so-called "mountain malaria". This form of malaria requires treatment with expensive drugs, as traditional remedies are powerless.
The territory of the SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC (South Africa) is washed by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Economically, it is the most developed country in Africa. The geographical position in the very south of Africa, at the crossroads of trade routes, contributed to the economic development of the country. However, the main factor of economic growth was natural resources: diamonds, gold, platinum, uranium, iron ores, coal. The history of mining in South Africa has created a kind of tourist attractions. So, in the center of the city-museum of Kimberley, gem seekers dug the "Great Hole" - the world's largest man-made diamond mine, which goes into the depths of the earth for almost a kilometer. Diamonds are found here to this day. Therefore, tourists for a small fee can try their luck to find one of the largest diamonds here.
The capital of South Africa is Pretoria. In South Africa, there are many nature reserves, national parks (Kruger Park), an extraordinary variety of landscapes - deserts, mountains. There are many
a lot of seaside resorts. The most famous among them is the city of Sun City. The predominant direction is ecological tourism. In 1997. about 60% of the 6 million tourists visiting South Africa chose a national park or nature reserve.
Countries of the former. The USSR occupies a vast territory, one-sixth of the world's land mass. Naturally, the region owns both natural and acquired resources for the development of the tourism industry: the vast expanses of Siberia with its wild nature, the mountain ranges of the Caucasus, the purest waters of Lake Baikal and Sevan, the sunny shores of the Black Sea, the Volga and Dnieper river basins, churches and cultural monuments of various peoples inhabiting a huge territory and professing different religions, historical sites and monuments created by peoples who lived in antiquity, handsome cities Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev and others with their many museums and exhibition halls, and much, much more.
Another factor in the development of tourism, namely health tourism in the region, is the presence of a variety of natural and healing sources.
As for comparative advantages, for example, the level of prices in relation to prices in other countries, then, if earlier prices were lower here than in the West (due to the non-market setting of the exchange rate, there was still a disproportion between domestic prices and prices for foreigners upwards), now they are equal to them, and in some places they even exceed, for example, in Moscow.
Historically, the development of tourism in the former. The USSR dates back to the day the state was founded, when ideological dogmas separated its inhabitants from the rest of the world. As a result of this policy, very few people left the country, they were mainly diplomats, people leaving on private invitations to their relatives and friends who remained abroad for various reasons, and a limited number of people leaving as part of tourist groups, as a rule, to the socialist countries. A limited number of foreign tourists also arrived in the USSR (according to some estimates, 80%) as part of organized tourist groups. However, in fairness, it should be noted that in the USSR, domestic, social tourism developed through trade unions, the cost of which was almost one tenth of the price offered to foreign tourists.
Tourism in the USSR was not considered a priority area of the economy, and it was assigned the role of a non-manufacturing industry. Therefore, investments in international tourism infrastructure were very low, although the state subsidized the development of domestic tourism as part of the entire social policy. The consequence of this policy was the limited number of foreign tourists arriving in the country. The situation began to change with the beginning of perestroika in 1985. The trend of tourist arrivals shows an increase in the number of foreigners visiting our country. In 1986, the level of arrivals decreased compared to 1985 due to the Chernobyl accident. However, the growth of arrivals to the USSR continued until the end of the 1980s, and the largest number of foreigners visiting the country was recorded in 1989. Then it slowly declined due to political and economic instability. After the collapse of the USSR and the formation of the CIS, the lowest level in the region for the entire period since the beginning of perestroika was recorded in 1992, about 3 million people. But gradually the number of tourists began to grow, and in 1995 Russia was already visited by 10, 3 million foreign guests (Table 8.).
Table 8.. The number of foreign citizens who visited the USSR, the CIS countries and the Russian Federation in 1985-1995, thousand people
Most foreigners in 1995 arrived in Russia from Finland - only 1276.3 thousand people, which is 12.4% of all arrivals to the country. Almost half of them came for tourism purposes. The second place was occupied by Poland, although in the Soviet period it was ahead of Finland - 666 thousand people, most of whom came for the purpose of tourism - 532 thousand people. In 1989, Poles accounted for 3.9% of all arrivals in the USSR, in total - 3034.7 thousand people, and among them there were only 792.5 thousand tourists. These statistics should be treated critically, since the USSR did not use the categories and standards adopted by the WTO.
Guests from non-socialist countries in the late 1980s accounted for one third of all visitors. The bureaucratic restrictions associated with visa processing played a significant role in this.
The policy of restricting international tourism was inherent not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the countries of Eastern Europe, which also paid little attention to the development of international tourism at home, limiting themselves to the development of domestic tourism or, at best, tourist flows among themselves. The exception was Yugoslavia, which in the 60s and 70s began to develop the recreation industry, attracting tourists from the West.
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Tourism resources of foreign Europe
International tourism (definition and research methods). Connection of the course "International Tourism" with other scientific disciplines.
Classification of types of tourism activities. Prospects for the development of international tourism. Modern factors in the development of international tourism.
The Scandinavian region traditionally includes three countries:
Finland, Sweden and Norway. In addition to them, Denmark and Iceland are also included here. These countries, in addition to their geographical proximity and northern location, have a number of other common features: a common historical development, a high level of economic development and prosperity, and a relatively small population.
FINLAND is a "country of a thousand lakes" (a consequence of the glacial past), it does not have rich natural resources, with the exception of forest and water resources. A significant part of the country - Lapland - is located above the Arctic Circle. The shores of the Gulf of Finland and Bothnia are cut by shallow bays with islands located there - skerries. Despite its northern location, the climate here is temperate continental thanks to the warm Gulf Stream and many inland waters. A special feature of Finnish nature is kamos - the polar night.
The population of Finland is about 5 million people, mainly Finns and Swedes live here, religion is Lutheran.
During the existence of the Swedish state, which included Finland, the Finns were considered mainly as "cannon fodder". In the XIX century. Finland became part of the Russian Empire, which led to the flourishing of the Finnish national culture and the transfer of the capital from the west, from the city of Turku, to the east of the country, to Helsinki. Helsinki was founded during the Swedish rule to supplant the then flourishing Hanseatic city of Tallinn. At 155 0. King Gustave Vasa of Sweden, who wanted to oust Tallinn, decides to found a port face to face in front of a rival city. This is how Helsinki was born.
Finland became an independent state after the Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917. in Russia.
Taking advantage of the declared V. Lenin's right of nations to self-determination, she was able to defend her national sovereignty. Administratively, the country is divided into 11 provinces (liani) and one autonomy - the Aland Islands, Finland is an economically highly developed country. High-quality paper, Nokia cell phones, diesel engines, elevator equipment, cruise ships, sports equipment - this is the "calling card" of the Finnish industry.
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