Date of publication: 28.2.018
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Gustenko, V. A. Value added chains in tourist clusters/V. A. Gustenko, V. V. Pobirchenko. - Text: direct//Problems of modern economy: materials of the VII Intern. scientific. conf. (Kazan, March 2018). - Kazan: Young Scientist, 2018 .-- S. 73-75. - URL: . u/conf/econ/archive/294/13920/(date accessed: 17.2.021).
Today tourism takes the place of one of the steadily developing sectors of the world economy, which has a significant impact on the socio-economic condition of many countries. The worldwide crisis phenomena, the development of the market economy, the change of poles in the international economic arena have emphasized the fact that it is necessary to resort to the restructuring of those methods of organizing national production that have exhausted themselves. In the context of these conditions, the cluster approach was recognized as the main and most effective method of organizing the tourism industry.
Tourism and recreation cluster (TRC) is understood as a set of interconnected and interacting commercial companies, government organizations, research centers that sell tourism goods and services on the basis of public-private partnerships within the region. TRCs are characterized by the same principles of activity as clusters in other spheres, namely: competition and cooperation. The level of competition in tourism is very high, since hundreds of different tour operators, hotels and restaurants can be located in a relatively small area. Therefore, competitive relations between the participants are built both in the internal and external in relation to the cluster environment.
Tourist clusters are a global phenomenon. To a greater extent, they are inherent in developed countries, but recently they have been widely implemented in developing and countries with economies in transition. An example is the wine tourism cluster in the United States, the Nala Valley, the Australian ecotourism cluster "Tropical North Queensland" . For island states, where the share of tourism in GDP is about 90%, the whole island can be considered a cluster (Bali, Seychelles, etc.).
Clustering of the tourism industry contributes to attracting a larger number of both foreign and national tourists, renewing the region's infrastructure, developing and implementing innovative projects, and also leads to a large-scale multiplier effect.
In turn, the activity of the cluster leads to the creation of a regional tourist labor market, which is the result of building cooperative networks. It is more profitable for many companies in the tourism industry to cooperate with competitors in order to reduce costs. Tour operators conclude cooperation agreements with hotels and restaurants. The latter can advertise or lease premises to local manufacturers of tourism-related goods (souvenirs, medical cosmetics, etc.). Thus, a value added chain is being built, which is revealed through the cooperative networks of enterprises that are part of the tourist and recreational cluster.
Value added (AD) is a part of the total cost of a product or service created directly by a given manufacturer as a result of an increment to the basic cost of a product. DS is created at each subsequent stage of production. The totality of these stages generates an intra-firm value added chain, forming a link between the producer and the consumer. A dynamically developing cluster contains a lot of such chains, which M. Porter called the “value accumulation system” [2, p. 8].
In the tourist cluster, the mechanism for creating the added value of a product or service according to Alexandrova A. Yu. (Fig. 1) includes four links:
- a chain of suppliers (first of all, transport companies that transport tourists). This chain is designated by the author as a "previous subsystem" ;
What to see in Astrakhan in 3 days: attractions, museums, routes. Reviews of tourists with photos. Where to go from Astrakhan for 3 days: excursions, rest outside the city.