Types of international transportation, their advantages and disadvantages

Air transport travel services in Russia and abroad

Annotation. The article discusses the western experience of managing the system of aviation tourist transport services, effective due to the focus on marketing. The authors express the opinion that the Russian experience is currently focused mainly on logistics development, and market management methods associated with the provision of complex services are still at the initial level.

Key words: service sector, foreign and Russian experience, aviation tourist transport services.

The relevance of research on the management of the system of aviation tourist transport services in Russia and abroad is associated with the development of tourism and the transport industry along the path of synergistic interaction, which necessitates the search for new effective management models.

The system of aviation tourist transport services should be understood as a systemic formation, consisting of a set of services aimed at transporting tourists by air, and a material and technical base on the basis of which the specified range of services is carried out. The management of this system will include various methods: regulatory, contractual, market (economic), organizational.

Problems. According to the authors, in order to more effectively use the aviation transport component in Russian tourism, it is advisable to use foreign experience in this area for a number of reasons:

1) to modernize the theoretical basis of the system of aviation tourist transport services in connection with the change in the social and economic prerequisites for its development, the complication of inter-economic relations; 2) in practice, many problems have accumulated due to the underdevelopment of the aviation tourism infrastructure, irrational financial flows, and their discrepancy with the volume of transport work. All this is currently sharply reducing the competitiveness of Russian tourist transport; 3) the development of economic activity in the field of tourist transport is interdependent and interrelated with the development of both tourism and transport in general. Solving the problems of modernizing the transport component of the economy and increasing the attractiveness of Russia as an international tourist center involves the rationalization of air transport flows of tourists; 4) the insufficient level of development of regional transport systems restrains the growth of domestic tourism in Russia. A country possessing inexhaustible tourist resources can and should effectively dispose of them when creating an effective mechanism for managing tourist transport; 5) the complexity of the management of aviation transport flows of tourists necessitates a special consideration of the integration processes of the goals of economic entities; 6) the emergence of difficulties in the development of aviation tourist transport is due to a significant extent to the underdevelopment of the docking mechanism for managing tourist transport with other participants in economic activity. These difficulties can be overcome by increasing the interconnection of the aviation tourist transport system with other transport systems, as well as with tourist and regional systems.

The experience of Western countries in managing the system of aviation tourist transport services is closely related to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), hereinafter - the WTO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA), hereinafter - IATA), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), hereinafter - ICAO).

According to the WTO (Tourism 2020), by 2020, Europe (717 million tourists), East Asia and the Pacific Ocean (397 million) and America (282 million. ), followed by Africa, the Middle East and South Asia.

To understand the peculiarities of the development of the management of the system of aviation tourist transport services abroad, we will briefly consider the history of this sphere in Europe.

Development of aviation tourism transport services in Europe

Note that before 1993 there were 2 models of European aviation transport management:

1) airlines for regular flights were directed to regular flights, based on commercial rights, through direct sales they sold tickets with individual prices, occupied each market share and cost at the level of 100%; 2) weekend charters chose special modes (ABC, IT), flew only to order and through a tour operator, did not have a differentiated ticket price, transported vacationers, cost at the level of 40%.

The new model, which existed until 2000, where participants were international and low-cost carriers, strengthened their centers by improving system connectivity and served all market segments (LH/SH, zaken/niet-zaken). Weekend charters are becoming free airlines and are increasing their sales not only through tour operators, but also through direct channels.

Prompt and safe delivery of goods is an important component of successful cooperation with foreign partners and business development. The modern field of logistics offers several options for transporting goods from one country to another. Each has a number of advantages and disadvantages. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the features of the most popular types of international transportation in order to be able, if necessary, to find the optimal solution for the safest, fastest and most inexpensive transportation of goods across the border.

International auto delivery

The use of road transport offers the most attractive ratio of financial costs and efficiency. This type of transportation is suitable for all types of cargo: groupage, overall, hazardous, perishable. Depending on the characteristics of the delivered goods, various types of vans (insulated, tilt, refrigerated), dump trucks, road trains, low loader trawls and other trucks can be used.

  • high speed of movement over long distances;
  • transportation of products of any type and volume;
  • no need to reload goods;
  • door-to-door delivery;
  • easy route change in case of force majeure.

The disadvantages of road transportation are the territory limited by seas and mountains, multiple transit registrations when crossing several countries and high risks of getting into an accident.

Rail freight

  • no restrictions on the type of transported products;
  • complete independence from weather conditions;
  • the highest level of security;
  • low cost of the service;
  • regular and accurate train schedule.

The only drawback of railway transportation is the remoteness of the unloading site to potential recipients, so other modes of transport often have to be involved.

Sea freight

This delivery option is the main one when the route runs across the ocean or sea. It also often replaces land or air delivery. Water transport is used for all types of products: expensive, oversized and dangerous goods, bulk materials, frozen and chilled food, cars, household appliances and much more. Delivery of goods by sea is carried out in containers: standard, bulk, ventilated, refrigerated, open, closed. It is also possible to use specialized vessels (tankers, bulk carriers).

The advantages of sea delivery are:

  • the lowest cost of services;
  • wide geography and any distance;
  • the only alternative to air transport when delivering between continents;
  • ease of handling (due to containers);
  • versatility in terms of transported goods.

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