Introduction 1. The concept of "tourism" 2. Types of tourism 3. International tourism 4. The main trends in the development of international tourism 5. International tourism in Russia Conclusion List of sources used
Tourism is one of the largest and most dynamic sectors of the economy. The high rates of its development, large volumes of foreign exchange earnings actively influence various sectors of the economy, which contributes to the formation of its own tourism industry. The tourism sector accounts for about 6% of the world's gross national product, 7% of world investments, every 16th job, 11% of world consumer spending. Thus, these days one cannot fail to notice the enormous impact that the tourism industry has on the world economy. In many states of the world, tourism is developing as a system that provides all the opportunities for acquaintance with the history, culture, customs, spiritual and religious values of a given country and its people, and gives income to the treasury. In addition to a significant source of income, tourism is also one of the powerful factors in enhancing the country's prestige, increasing its importance in the eyes of the world community and ordinary citizens.
Tourism activities in various countries are an important source of increasing the welfare of the state. In 1995, the United States received $ 58 billion from the sale of tourist services to foreign citizens, France and Italy - $ 27 billion each, Spain - $ 25 billion.
In Russia, the tourism business is developing with a predominant focus on travel. The overwhelming majority of travel companies operating in our country prefer to direct their compatriots abroad, and only a small part of them work to attract guests to the Russian Federation - i. everything is done in such a way that the capital from the tourism business floats abroad. What is the picture of the international tourist services market now, how is it changing in the future? In the circumstances, these questions seem to be relevant, which is why I chose the topic of this essay.
Tourism is a type of travel and encompasses the circle of people who travel and stay in places outside their usual environment, for the purpose of recreation, business or other purposes. At first glance, the concept of "tourism" is available to each of us, since we all traveled somewhere, read articles about tourism in the newspapers, watched TV programs about travel, and when planning our vacation, we used the advice and services of travel agents. However, for scientific and educational purposes it is very important to determine the relationship between the constituent elements of tourism as a branch of the national economy. Although various interpretations of this concept have appeared in the process of tourism development, the following criteria are of particular importance in defining this phenomenon:
Change of location. In this case, we are talking about a trip that is carried out to a place outside the usual environment. However, tourists cannot be considered tourists who make daily trips between home and place of work or study, i.e. these trips do not fall outside their usual environment.
Stay elsewhere. The main condition here is that the place of stay should not be a place of permanent or long-term residence. In addition, it should not be related to work (wages). This nuance should be taken into account, therefore they are classified as tourism. Another condition is that travelers should not be in the place they visit for 12 months or more. A person staying or planning to stay for one year or more in a certain place is considered a permanent resident from the point of view of tourism and therefore cannot be called a tourist.
Remuneration of labor from the source in the visited place. The essence of this criterion is that the main purpose of the trip should not be the implementation of activities paid for from a source in the visited place. Any person who enters a country to work paid from a source in that country is considered a migrant and not a tourist in that country. This applies not only to international tourism, but also to tourism within the same country. Every person traveling to another location within one country (or to another country) to carry out activities paid for from a source in that location (country) is not considered a tourist of that location.
These three criteria, which form the basis for the definition of tourism, are basic. At the same time, there are special categories of tourists for whom these criteria are still insufficient - these are refugees, nomads, prisoners, transit passengers who do not formally enter the country, and persons accompanying or escorting these groups.
Analysis of the above features, characteristics and criteria allows us to highlight the following signs of tourism:
business travel, as well as travel for the purpose of spending free time is moving outside the boundaries of the usual place of residence and work. If a resident of the city moves to him in order to make purchases, then he is not a tourist, since he does not leave his functional place;
Tourism is not only a branch of the economy, but also an important part of people's lives. It covers the relationship of a person with the external environment around him.
Therefore, tourism is a set of relations, connections and phenomena that accompany the trip and stay of people in places that are not places of their permanent or long-term residence and are not related to their work activities.
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