The impact of globalization and the problem of preserving cultural diversity (cultural globalization) is a phenomenon due to which the experience of everyday life, influencing the distribution of goods, ideas, reflects the standardization of forms of cultural expression throughout the world. Below is a detailed description of the impact of globalization on culture, as well as examples of the manifestation of globalization in the modern world.
Moving towards the efficiency and appeal of wireless communications, e-commerce, popular culture, international travel, globalization is seen as a trend towards homogeneity that will ultimately make the human experience essentially the same everywhere. This, however, is an exaggeration of this phenomenon. Although homogenizing influences do exist, they are far from creating anything like a unified world culture.
Certain observers argue that some people with similar values, aspirations, lifestyles form a rudimentary version of world culture. The result is a collection of elite groups whose ideals transcend geographic boundaries.
One such shot, according to political scientist Samuel Huntington (Clash of Civilizations, 1998), is an elite group of highly educated people working in the sparse areas of international finance, the media, and diplomacy. Named after the Swiss city that hosted the annual meetings of the World Economic Forum (1971), Davos insiders share common beliefs about individualism, democracy, and the market economy. They are said to follow a recognizable lifestyle, instantly identify themselves anywhere in the world, and feel more comfortable around each other than among their less complex compatriots.
The globalization of cultural subgroups is not limited to the upper classes. Sociologists of the West, expanding the concept of Davos culture, note: the globalization of Euro-American academic programs and lifestyles has created a world “club of faculties” - an international network of people with similar values, attitudes, and research goals.
Members of this international faculty club, less wealthy, privileged like their partners in Davos, have enormous influence through their association with educational institutions around the world, have played an important role in promoting feminism, environmental protection, human rights as global problems. An example is given of the anti-deflation movement, which began as the only North American concern of the 1970s, spreading to other parts of the world, traveling the contours of the global academic network.
Another global subgroup includes the "cosmopolitans" who feed the intellectual appreciation of local cultures. The group advocates for a global culture based not on “replicating uniformity” but “organizing diversity”. Often encouraging this point of view, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are working to preserve the cultural traditions of the developing world.
By the beginning of the 21st century, global institutions such as Cultural Survival have acted with a focus on indigenous groups recommending that they perceive themselves as “first peoples” - a new global designation that emphasizes the shared experience of exploitation among indigenous people throughout land. By sharpening this identity, NGOs have globalized the movement to preserve the world's indigenous cultures.
Another group is related to the growth of the transnational workforce. Indian anthropologist Arjun Appadurai studied English-speaking professionals who trace their South Asian origins but live and work elsewhere. They are spread throughout the social world by several basic concepts that have gained access to a unique network of opportunities, also people. For example, many software developers, Internet entrepreneurs of Silicon Valley, California, maintain home connections with well-known social connections with the Indian states of Maharashtra, Punjab.
The basis of these different visions of globalization is the reluctance to define precisely what is meant by the term “culture”. For most of the 20th century, anthropologists have defined culture as a common set of beliefs, customs, ideas that unite people in recognizable, self-determined groups. Scientists from many disciplines disputed this concept of cultural coherence, moreover, it became obvious that members of cohesive groups were radically different in their world social views.
Culture is no longer perceived by the knowledge system inherited from ancestors. As a result, many sociologists now view culture as a collection of ideas, attributes, expectations that change as people react to changing circumstances. Indeed, by the end of the 20th century, the collapse of barriers imposed by Western ideology, the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the rise of e-commerce, everywhere increased the perceived speed of social change.
Globalization is, in simple words, a term based on two components: unification - a concept that characterizes the process of bringing to a single standard in the scientific and technical sphere; integration - the establishment of relationships between individual objects of society and phenomena.
According to the definitions, these two components have affected all aspects of the world economy, that is, the process of globalization is universal. What characterizes globalization? How does the process affect the world society? Let's take a look at examples.
The term "globalization" was born in the works of K. Marx. Earlier, before its definition by the author, the process of globalization was stimulated by the development of trade activities, military clashes. Currently, it has entered a slightly different phase: the world has begun to unite on technological and economic foundations.
The asymmetry of globalization processes is that different states are in an unequal position. This suggests that they are not equally prepared in terms of economic, financial and military capabilities.
Countries with more advanced economies are often set to weaken developing countries. Thus, the strong penetrate into the economic markets of the weak. Developed countries are expanding their spheres of influence at the expense of countries that are less economically adapted. Cultural and national traditions are subject to destruction on the part of the weak. I recall Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection: the strongest survive on the world stage, pushing the weaker, undeveloped countries into the background.
Before giving an example, consider the pros and cons of globalization in the economic sphere.
Pros of globalization:
There are no discrepancies in social science regarding the main feature inherent in the world economy at the moment - this is globalization. Let's look at all aspects of this phenomenon, list the sources, stages of formation and characteristic features.
Globalization is a process of increasing closeness of mutual dependence of countries and regions of the world, which began with economic integration (unification) and is accompanied by integration and unification (bringing to a uniform form) in the spheres of politics, culture and religion.
This definition of globalization follows from numerous formulations made by economists, sociologists and political scientists. Let's analyze the basic concepts related to the concept of globalization.
Due to the uneven development of countries, capital from countries where it accumulates faster and where there is a surplus, moves to countries where there is a deficit. In the latter, capital becomes a catalyst for the intensification of the use of labor resources and natural benefits, such as minerals. This process leads to the internationalization of production.
Many functions that have been retained by states for a long time are delegated to the level of regional institutions. An example of such an institution is the European Union. Thus, the regions play an increasing role in making decisions that determine the political and economic behavior and development of individual countries.
For a long time, the world was dominated by the Westphalian system of international relations, according to which borders in a broad sense were established according to the principle of "nation-state". In the 21st century, this system is in crisis. It manifests itself primarily in the removal of barriers to free trade, the movement of capital and human (labor) resources, and the establishment of universal rules and regulations.
Significant positions in this game are occupied by:
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