Genesis of tourist and excursion activities in the Russian Empire (XVIII - early XX centuries)
A new stage in the development of the Russian state begins during the reign of Emperor Peter I. It is with his reform activities that the beginning of Russia's transition from a traditional agrarian society to industrial relations is connected. All aspects of life in the Russian Empire underwent modernization: from socio-economic relations to some aspects of the life of His Imperial Majesty's subjects.
Peter I, possessing a universal mindset, wanted Russia to have access to the seas, which would make it possible to intensify the trade of our state and make it independent from reseller states. Behind this, he correctly perceived not only an increase in our economic potential, but also an increase in political authority. Therefore, from the very first years of his reign, he pays great attention to the development of the fleet. The first shipyards appeared in Arkhangelsk under him.
Peter I gives the order to build only "new manners" ships from now on at state shipyards, abandoning the Pomor "kochi". In addition, ships built in the White Sea were sent to the Baltic, bypassing Scandinavia, which was an excellent school for our sailors. The tsar himself sailed on sailing ships in the White Sea as a skipper. It is known that he also personally took part in the siege of Azov in 1696
It was Peter I who began to dismantle the “iron curtain” that separated Russia from other states in the Middle Ages. In doing so, he himself set a brilliant example. Before him, not a single Russian tsar left the borders of his state. In 1697-1698 took place a big trip abroad, called the "Great Embassy". The goals of this voyage were numerous. First, foreign policy: it was necessary to find allies among European countries in the planned wars with the Ottoman Empire for access to the Black and then to the Mediterranean Sea. Secondly, economic and cognitive: it was necessary to see the level of development of science and technology in Europe in order, if possible, to adopt and introduce innovations in Russia that contribute to strengthening its military potential in the first place. And finally, thirdly, acquaintance with the life of Western peoples, their culture and customs. Thus, the "Great Embassy" can be viewed as a tourist trip in several ways.
Peter I visited Courland, Prussia, Holland, England, Austria and Poland. Academician S. Platonov described the significance of this foreign voyage of Peter I as follows: “Staying in foreign lands for a year and a half finally developed the personality and direction of Peter himself. He received a lot of useful knowledge, got used to the cultural forms of European life, matured mentally and himself became a European in spirit. In addition, the trip of the Moscow tsar to the West revived Moscow's relations with the West, intensified the exchange of people between Russia and Europe. Since then, many Russians began to live and study abroad; hundreds of foreigners were invited to Russia and aspired there themselves. While abroad, Peter learned the real relations between the powers, and instead of unrealizable dreams of expelling the Turks to Asia, he adopted a sober plan to fight Sweden for the Baltic coast, lost by his ancestors. " .
But even after returning from abroad, Peter I did not stop his travels. In 1699, he sailed in the Sea of Azov with the rank of captain, commanding the ship "Opened Gates". In 1702 she sailed in the White Sea, next year she measured the fairway near Kotlin Island. In 1709, the voyage in the waters of the Azov Sea took place again, and in 1710 -1713. he repeatedly led ships with the rank of rear admiral. And in the main naval battle of the Northern War at Cape Gangut in 1714, he also did not stand aside, for which he was promoted to vice admiral.
In 1717, the tsar visited France, where he was kindly greeted by Louis XV. In all likelihood, Peter I can be called one of the first guides in our state. He was very fond of guiding foreigners on excursions around St. Petersburg, showing them city buildings and palaces, the Kunstkamera and temples, as well as giving lengthy explanations about urban planning plans for the near future.
But the emperor was not able to “embrace the immensity”. And to implement his plans related to the modernization of Russia, he is carrying out a number of grandiose events. This should include, first of all, the "import" of the noble niggard to study abroad. It should be noted that Peter 1 was not a pioneer in this endeavor. “It has long been a custom to send young Russian people to Constantinople to study there in Greek; now the tsar (Boris Godunov. - M.) wanted to do the same with respect to other countries and languages; selected several young people and sent some to Lubeck, others to England, some to France and Austria to study. The Hanseatic merchants, who were in Moscow in 1603, took five boys with them to Lubeck, whom they undertook to learn Latin, German and other languages, and to keep them firmly so that they would not abandon their faith and their customs. With the English merchant John Merik, four young people were sent to London "for the science of different languages and literacy", - the historian S. Soloviev . True, the scientist does not add that out of fifteen young people sent to their homeland, only one returned (!).
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