The country's economy and the success of any business, or a simple change of residence - it all depends on a correctly made trade and logistics decision. And now we want to tell you about several modern trends that determine the importance of logistics in the global industry.
The demand for any product has increased significantly due to the smooth movement of goods and services and improved logistics infrastructure. Expansion of trade and logistics infrastructures created all the convenience for customers. Now customers and users are served anytime, anywhere. Thus, improved international logistics have helped to increase the total product sales of billions of companies.
Improved logistics in logistics has helped keep many businesses afloat as the movement of goods from one location to another has become almost continuous due to improvements in ports, rail networks, roads and aviation.
For example, due to improved road connections in China, a truck can travel 1,300 km in that country in about 74 hours. And the same distance, which is equivalent to the distance between Delhi and Calcutta, in India it will cover in about 144 hours. Thus, the trade cycle not only expands, but also degrades the quality of some goods, lowering their prices in the markets.
Improvements in transportation and global logistics services from leading logistics companies are essential for moving goods and services from one region to another. This helps companies interact with customers in every corner of the world.
For example, the Indian industry has many potential areas such as electronics, engineering, chip design, auto components, etc. But it can only contribute to the development of world markets if the country has an improved trade logistics infrastructure and a networked system, otherwise competitors from other developed countries will have business opportunities.
Therefore, any country must have a high-quality logistics infrastructure to attract customers around the world.
Logistic model of the tourism system
At present, tourism is one of the most dynamic spheres of our life, directly or indirectly influencing the development of the entire national economy. According to the World Tourism Organization, tourism provides up to 10% of the planet's service market turnover. International tourist travel is expected to rise to 11.6 billion by 2020, tourism revenues are expected to reach $ 2 trillion per year, while global tourism will grow at least 3-5% annually. However, in comparison with developed countries, the share of tourism in the Russian economy is still small - about 1%.
In our opinion, this situation is partly due to the fact that traditional methods of managing economic activities in tourism have largely exhausted themselves and new, more progressive ones are needed. In particular, the improvement of tourist activity is possible through the use of methods of such a scientific and practical direction of the economy as logistics.
As noted by prominent domestic logistics specialists A. Semenenko and V. Sergeev, “the practice of systems research shows that in many cases the systemic formulation of the problem either opens the way to the use of a new research apparatus in relation to this problem, or stimulates the search and construction of a special apparatus” [4, p. 40].
One of the fundamental principles of the systems approach is the principle of integrity, the methodological function of which is to solve the problems of ensuring the synthesis of various ideas about the subject. The object of study of logistics as a science is the parameters of flows of various kinds (in particular, material, informational and financial). Therefore, it seems correct to consider tourism as a system of flows.
Based on the analysis of various literature sources on logistics and tourism [1-7], the use of system analysis methodology, as well as set theory, a model of a four-level logistics tourism system is proposed (Fig. 1). This system can be represented as a set of logistics tourism systems (LTS).
The first level is a collection of 4 subsets, which are named after the types of streams:
- LTS1 - tourist flow; - LTS2 - material flow; - LTS3 - information and management flow; - LTS4 - cash (financial flow).
Mathematically, this model can be represented as follows:
Logistics of transportation is the science of the organized delivery of cargo or a passenger from one point in space to another with minimum costs, in a minimum period of time, subject to maximum safety.
The result of building a logistic scheme in a sequential solution of the following issues:
Each stage of the scheme is made up of the achievements of the previous stage.
It is impossible to ignore the next stage, or break the sequence of the scheme.
Connect the details of the scheme to solve the delivery problem, find the best option - the main goal of logistics.
The first link in the supply chain is the cargo. The further organization of the process is built on the basis of its qualitative indicators. The classification, dimensions, loading methods, delivery speed will depend on which transport is preferable for the delivery of a particular cargo. All other positions will be based on the underlying data.
For each product, a life cycle is measured, consisting of production and delivery to the place of sale, marketing, temporary storage and final consumption.
Food products need accelerated implementation. For the safety of special cargo, special transportation conditions are required. For dangerous goods, special equipment is required. Large-sized items require a lot of permits and a special delivery route.
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