Foreign experience in tourism development

Foreign experience in tourism development

The tourism sector is developing everywhere now. And Russia is no exception. Like everyone else, it has its own advantages and disadvantages regarding this direction. Let's try to analyze the position of Russia in the international tourism market.

In the rating of tourist attractiveness, calculated according to the methodology of the World Economic Forum, Russia in 2007 ranked 68th, but then it climbed up and in 2011 reached 59th position in the rating. These data can speak of two important features of the current state of tourism in Russia. On the one hand, the place of the Russian Federation in the rating is not high enough, which is an indicator of a poorly developed tourist infrastructure. On the other hand, progress is visible, Russia's position is growing, which indicates development, the tourism industry is moving forward.

Among the peculiarities of Russia, one can single out the specifics of the provision of tourist services. It is worth paying attention to the fact that the leading tour operators are redistributed in one direction or another of tourist trips. Separate travel agency and tour operator market segments. Moreover, in the tour operator segment there is a pronounced oligopolistic competition: in any of the directions there are 5-10 large tour operators, which have captured about 90% of the entire market segment. There is perfect competition in the travel agent segment, which significantly reduces the barriers to entry into the market.

The Institute for Economic Strategies compiled a list of leading companies in the tourism market in 2008. The first places are taken by: the group of companies "Intourist", "Neva", "Natalie Tours", "Tez Tour", "Coral Travel", "Inna Tour", "Capital Tour", "Pac Group". However, even among the leading companies, things do not always go well. For example, the situation with the Tez Tour company is known, which violated the Federal Law "On Competition" and launched a video on the First Channel with the slogan: "Tour Operator No. 1", which led to an administrative case initiated against the FAS travel agency.

In order to characterize the place and role of tourism in the Russian Federation, it is necessary to analyze a number of indicators. For example, the total contribution of tourism to Russia's GDP is 5.9%. This figure is less than the world average, but by 2012 growth is expected by 4.6%. In 2011, the number of people employed in the tourism sector was 5.5% of total employment, and is projected to be 5.9% in 2022. As we can see, the share of tourism according to these indicators is not very high, however, there are tendencies for growth.

The next thing that deserves attention is the entry and exit trips of citizens for purposes.

Table 8 - Entry into the Russian Federation and exit of citizens from the Russian Federation, thousands

The number of trips of foreign citizens to the Russian Federation

Number of Russian citizens' trips abroad

Let's analyze the structure of the table. It can be concluded from this that the total number of trips from and to Russia is growing. However, the number of trips of Russian citizens abroad exceeds the number of trips of foreign citizens to Russia by more than three times in 2011. This cannot be called a positive trend, since, based on the structure of the table, it is obvious that inbound tourism is very poorly developed. Over the past ten years, the number of visiting foreign citizens has increased by 24%, while the number of Russian citizens' trips abroad has increased by 198%. There is no doubt that the difference is very significant. Moreover, based on the data in the table, there is a prospect of maintaining this trend.

If we consider travel by purpose, then people come to Russia mainly for business purposes, followed by private travel and tourism, which occupy approximately the same positions. Russian tourists travel abroad mostly for the purpose of tourism or for private trips. Consequently, we can say that at this stage, Russia is a country that is unattractive for inbound tourism. In percentage terms, for the purpose of tourism over the past ten years, the increase in trips to our country was only 0.6%. And the increase in the number of trips from the Russian Federation for the same purpose was 230%. These figures immediately reflect the main problem of the Russian Federation - low attractiveness from the point of view of international tourism. On the other hand, Russian citizens are active consumers of international travel services, which has already been discussed in Table 5.

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