Background and history of ecotourism development Concept of sustainable development of modern tourism
Among the main prerequisites for the emergence of ecotourism, the leading role is played by the increasing anthropogenic load on natural, cultural and historical tourist resources due to the mass nature of tourism. This load increases in direct proportion to the growth rate of tourist visits. Taking into account the indicators of tourism development in the 21st century predicted by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), it becomes obvious that contradictions are growing in the issue of meeting tourist demand and rational use of tourist resources.
The negative aspects of the impact of mass tourism on the environment and tourist resources were noted back in the 70s in foreign and domestic studies. Today, anthropogenic pressure and its inhibitory development of influence is observed in almost all sectors of the tourism industry and types of tourism, in the vast majority of tourist areas. For example, already in 1973-1983. in Poland, for this reason, the length of tourist water routes along rivers and lakes decreased by 40%, and sea routes by 70%. The area of damaged forests has increased by 60%. Since 1976, in the United States in the Balinger Canyon, as a result of the movement of vehicles serving tourists, the average rate of soil and soil washout was 86 times higher than the maximum permissible.
As the globalization of the world economy grew, negative changes in the geographic shell of the Earth also grew, in particular:
- climate change; - degradation of soils and lands; - destruction of ecosystems and reduction of biodiversity; - increasing pollution of water, soil and air; - natural disasters caused by human activities; - uncontrolled population growth and increasing inequality in socio-economic development; - food security and growing threats to public health; - limited reserves of energy and other types of natural resources.
Given the global nature of these problems, it is impossible to solve them at the regional or national level.
The German Council of Global Change Consultants has identified the following typical problem patterns that are repeated in many regions of the world. By analogy with diseases, they were called syndromes:
1) utilization syndromes. For example, over-cultivation of marginal lands (Sahel syndrome), or recreational development and destruction of nature (mass tourism syndrome); 2) developmental syndromes. For example, ecological destruction of landscapes due to the implementation of inadequate development programs ("Aral Syndrome"), or ignoring environmental standards during rapid economic development ("Asian Tiger Syndrome"); 3) waste syndromes. For example, environmental degradation during controlled and uncontrolled disposal of waste (dumping syndrome).
As the problems became more urgent, the number of publications, conferences and meetings devoted to the rational use of natural, cultural and historical tourism resources also increased. In 1999 alone, more than 400 papers on this topic were published abroad. The result of an intense search was the concept of sustainable tourism development in the XXI century developed in 1996 by the WTO, the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), the Green World organization: "Agenda 21 for travel and tourism industry". It was addressed to national administrations for tourism, tourism, trade organizations, as well as consumers of tourism services. The concept is based on the "Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry" - a comprehensive program of action adopted by 182 governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) on June 14, 1992
Sustainable development is understood as a process that takes place without harming tourism resources. This is achieved by managing resources in such a way that they can be renewed at the same rate with which they are used, or by switching from slowly renewable resources to rapidly renewable ones.
The concept of ecotourism has come into our everyday life relatively recently. This is a special type of recreation, during which tourists go to places of wild nature, travel to territories that have managed to survive in their original form, visit natural monuments, etc. The main goal of an ecotourist is to get to know the environment, to merge with it as closely as possible, while preventing serious interference with natural processes and not causing damage to them.
The term "ecotourism" in the West was officially used at one of the conferences by the Mexican ecologist Hector Ceballos-Lascurain in the first half of the 1980s. It reflected the idea of harmony between recreation and ecology and gained great popularity. One of the variants of this definition is ecotourism as an active form of recreation based on the rational use of natural benefits. It involves the rejection of the cult of comfort, mass communications, accessibility and consumption of more and more numerous tourist goods (as opposed to, for example, tour-realism, which implies immersion in nature and culture while maintaining a high level of comfort). And in return, it instills a different system of values, which become contemplation of nature, spiritual enrichment from communication with it, participation in the protection of natural heritage and support of the traditional culture of local communities.
In Russia, at about the same time, it came into circulation during the development and operation of the pedestrian route "Circum-Baikal Railway" of the Bureau of International Youth Tourism "Sputnik" of the Irkutsk Regional Committee of the Komsomol (evolution of the term: "ecological route" - " ecotours around the Circum-Baikal Railway "and, finally," ecotourism on Baikal ").
In the professional (as well as in the academic) environment, there are several idealistic definitions of ecotourism, similar in meaning:
Based on the definitions, the distinctive features of ecotourism are highlighted, formulated as a set of principles.
The distinguishing feature of ecotourism is that it can prevent negative impacts on nature and encourage tour operators and tourists to contribute to nature conservation and socio-economic development.
For a quarter of a century, experts have not come to a consensus - what is ecological tourism, calling the same phenomenon either ecotourism, then natural, then green, then soft, etc., and even referring its sometimes to one of the manifestations of adventure travel. But it is obvious that it is not the thoughts and wishes of tour operators, and even the tourists themselves that make it "ecological", but the fact that using nature for their own purposes, they somehow affect it, on the ecological state of those places where this tourist product is sold ...
Ecotourism is the only direction in the tourism industry that is vitally interested in preserving its main resource - the natural environment or its individual components (natural monuments, certain species of animals or plants, etc.). When the local population is involved in the ecotourism process, they also become interested in using these resources on the basis of farming, rather than withdrawal.
This term implies the organization of a trip to untouched natural areas. It should help protect them and improve the well-being of the local population. And also to combine the study of flora and fauna objects with a careful attitude towards them. Ecotourism has its own characteristics:
When planning our next vacation, we don't always want to wallow on the beach or conquer mountain peaks, sometimes we just want to be in nature, enjoy a simple life, admire the surrounding nature and get plenty of fresh air! Truly "fresh" - so that there is a clean forest, fragrant fields and meadows around! Especially for tourists who are looking for places where it is best to breathe fresh air, there is a so-called "country vacation", also called "Ecotourism". In this article, you will find out about the best ecotourism destinations in Europe.
One of the places in Europe for ecotourism can be considered Scotland. The slopes of this country breathe with peace and tranquility, and the northern regions offer excellent options for a measured holiday. In Yorkshire, you can find a wonderful farm or country house, some of which have their own spa and fitness room (of course, at an additional cost).
The cozy Coltsfoot Country Retreat Hotel (hotel on Booking.om) in the village of Knebworth (Knebworth - reviews, photos), is located in a picturesque place and offers its guests a home-style comfortable rest and an English breakfast in the heart nature. Closer to London, in the town of Bagshot (Bagshot - reviews, photos), there is the Pennyhill Park Hotel (hotel on Booking.om) with spacious comfortable rooms, where it is so nice to relax after a leisurely stroll through the vast well-groomed territory or visiting your own spa center.
Despite the many world-famous modern German cities that are popular with tourists from all over the world, nothing touches the heart more than the lovely villages of the Schwarzwald region in the south of the country. the taste of Black Forest cherry pie. Holidays in ecotourism style are beyond praise here - in the south-west of Munich lies the charming hotel Alpenhof Murnau (hotel on Booking.om), from the balconies of which you can enjoy panoramic views of the Bavarian Alps. Once behind the wheel, in just an hour you will enjoy an unforgettable view of the Neuschwanstein Castle (photos, reviews, prices).
And fans of entertainment events can join the annual festival in the village of Oberammergau (Oberammergau - reviews, photos). In this region there is an opportunity for luxurious eco-friendly recreation of a budget class, for example, the 3 * Höhenhotel Kalikutt (hotel on Booking.om) offers its guests cozy rooms, and the services of the local spa "pull" all 5 *. In the heart of the forest near Freudenstadt (Freudenstadt - reviews, photos), the Hotel Palmenwald (hotel on Booking.om) is popular among newlyweds.
In addition to luxury hotels on the seaside, Spain is ready to offer tourists a wonderful holiday in the "countryside". Do you like delicious food and appreciate good wines? Head to Salamanca to the Hacienda Zorita Wine Hotel & Spa (hotel on Booking.om), a true gourmet paradise nestled in tranquility. And if you find yourself in Catalonia, book a few days at the wonderful Hotel Masia Sumidors (. Ooking. Om/hotel/es/sumidors. U. Tml), nestled in a pine forest surrounded by vineyards. Not far from the French border, you can spend time in charming places in the Costa Brava region, for example, in the town of Cadaqués (Cadaqués - reviews, photos, hotel prices), where the famous Salvador Dali once lived.
For new experiences, head to the now defunct Monasterio de Rueda (hotel on Booking.om), where the hotel of the same name is now located. In the south-west of the country, it is worth visiting the picturesque city of Malaga, in the northern part of which you will be greeted by a tiny, only 10 rooms, Hotel Molino del Puente (a hotel on Booking.om) - a former flour mill and an olive oil factory.
What attracts tourists to this country and why is it worth visiting Norway? Earlier, we have already considered what this Scandinavian country is famous for and why it is so interesting for foreigners. In the same article, I would like to devote time directly to the journey itself.