Lermoos, panorama of the Zugspitze mountain
Luxurious palaces, majestic mountains and exquisite pastries.
Amazing alpine landscape, monumental architecture of the Habsburg era, ski resorts in Austria, world-famous musicals - the tourism industry in Austria, of course, is built on certain clichés. However, these are not only the chamber ensembles of Mozart and schnitzels, today's Austria also boasts a variety of European museums and architecture in recent years; and the attractive, high-tech cities of Austria will delight you with a variety of bars, cafes and clubs that combine modern relaxation and acquaintance with sophisticated traditions.
Austria has undergone many changes since the powerful Habsburg empire, including the uncertainty of the first half of the twentieth century. Deprived of its empire and experiencing an economic crisis, the country became an easy prey for Nazi Germany. Only with the end of the Cold War did Austria return to the heart of Europe, joining the EU in 1995.
Forgetting politics, we can say that Austria is famous in many ways for two opposite merits - the dim imperial beauty of the capital and the stunning splendor of the Alpine hinterland. Vienna (Vienna), the capital of Austria, has access to many places in central Europe and will allow you to fully immerse yourself in its culture. Lesser-known provincial capitals such as Graz and Linz offer an amazing combination of culture, innovation and vitality. The city of Salzburg, located between Innsbruck and Vienna, with its picturesque and intoxicating Baroque architecture can be considered another attraction in Austria, from where vacationers can easily reach the mountains and lakes of the Salzkammergut. However, the most impressive landscapes of the Alps are to the west of Salzburg, in the Tyrol region, the capital of which, Innsbruck, will appeal to the most curious tourists.
Without visiting Vienna, you will lose half of the impressions of visiting this country. Rebuilt to the highest level, as the capital of the Habsburg empire, today the city only winds up a pleasant nostalgia for the long-vanished empire. A must-see is the historic Hofburg and Schönbrunn palaces, as well as the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the newest cultural complex MuseumsQuartier. No less interesting are the cafes of the golden era of the late 19th century, which, at one time, were often visited by such personalities as Freud, Klimt, Schiele and Schönberg. The city will also delight you with several Art Nouveau buildings and a number of traditional fin-de-siècle cafés served by waiters in tuxedos. Last but not least is Vienna's nightlife, which offers vacationers a visit to both high opera and modern clubs where you can hear techno.
Another equally exciting city is Salzburg. The city's Altstadt is home to a wealth of Baroque architecture, and the Hohensalzburg fortress is unquestionably the most impressive medieval castle in the country. It is the birthplace of Mozart himself and home to the Salzburg Festival, a tribute to classical music and theatrical arts. Another regional capital of Austria, Innsburg, will delight you with its rich nightlife and proximity to the highest mountains of Tyrol (Tyrol), which makes it one of the most visited. Also in the beautiful and spacious city center is the Hofkirche church, where a memorial to the imperious emperor of the 16th century, the Habsburg era, Maximilian I is located. The main attractions of the Styria capital, Graz (Graz), the Landesmuseum Joanneum museum and the castle Eggenberg Palace, located in Altstadt. Austria's second largest city also offers the opportunity to visit the vineyards and pumpkin fields of the rural southeast.
The best time to visit Austria depends on whether you prefer a city break or a more rural one. Most mountain resorts are designed for two tourist seasons, one for winter sports enthusiasts and the other for summer hikers. In the off-season, you may find that most of the tourist sites will be closed. However, some cities in Austria are visited by holidaymakers all year round, especially in the midst of holidays and annual festivals - Vienna is filled with holidaymakers for Christmas, new year and, of course, Fastnacht (carnival season), and the Salzburg Festival provides a steady stream of wealthy visitors in July and August.
If you are not a fan of a cool climate, then planning a trip is from April to October - at this time the weather in Austria is consistently warm, although there are exceptions. If you are a ski lover, then the period from November to April will be the perfect choice for you. Ski resorts are perhaps the only reason to travel to Austria in winter, as the weather often remains wet and nasty at this time of the year. Weather conditions throughout the country are almost the same. The alpine regions are traditionally colder, the low-lying regions in the north and east are characterized by continental conditions that suggest colder winters and hotter summers, and the southeast of Austria will delight in long, warm, almost Mediterranean summers. Regardless of what season you come, and if your vacation takes place in the middle of the mountains, remember that the weather in these places can change very dramatically and quite significantly. And also the probability of thunderstorms remains throughout the year.
Austria is located in the heart of Europe and borders seven other countries. With excellent transport links, it is easily accessible from both the northwest and southeast of Europe. Vienna has a large international airport, and you can also get by plane to Salzburg, Innsbruck, Graz, Linz or to Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, which can be reached by bus from Vienna in 1 hour. 15 minutes. Vienna is also the main railway junction in central Europe with connections to Budapest, Bratislava and Prague. And from Croatia and Slovenia, trains go straight to Graz. Leaving northern Italy (eg Venice) you will arrive in Innsbruck, which, like Salzburg, has a train connection with Munich.
Austria for a long time was the heart of the Habsburg empire and played a key role in European politics and culture, and in the 20th century it experienced changes and was in a state of instability for decades. In the interval between the two world wars, the state, devoid of its former imperial greatness and burdened with political and economic problems, fell victim to Nazi Germany. After World War II, Austria's Nazi past was consigned to oblivion.
The economic stability that came after the war contributed to a certain increase in patriotism and the strengthening of social policy as the main principle of the life of the state. After the Cold War, the country returned to Europe and joined the EU in 1995. However, from time to time, the legacy of the past is felt, which manifested itself in recent years, when the role of the right-wing Freedom Party (FPE), led by Jörg Haider, whose policies of populism and xenophobia continue to cause concern, increased. Moving away from politics, it should be noted that Austria is primarily famous for the imperial splendor of its capital and beautiful alpine landscapes.
The path to Central Europe passes through Vienna, this is the place where you can get in touch with Central European culture on the way to the possessions of the Magyars and Slavs, who were once under the rule of the city. The lesser-known main cities of the provinces of Graz and Linz show a similar cultural level and vitality. To the west of them you can admire the spectacular landscapes of the Austrian Alps. The best place to start your trip to the Alps is in Innsbruck, the capital of Tyrol (Tyrol). Salzburg is located between Vienna and Innsbruck - the most picturesque city in Austria, imbued with the spirit of the Baroque and located near the mountains and lakes of the Salzkammergut.
Austrian public transport is efficient and covers a variety of destinations. Federal Railways trains are punctual, clean and comfortable and travel to almost all cities in the country. Trains are designated EU and EN (international Euro City and Euro Night express trains), the fastest ICE and IC (Austrian intercity express trains). The D (Schnellzug) and E (Eilzug) designations mean stops at most intermediate points, the R (Regionalzug) index means the slowest train with stops at all stations. Inter Rail and Eurail cards are valid here.
Bahnbus and Postbus buses go to remote rural areas and alpine valleys, the fare is about 10 euros per 100 kilometers. In general, Bahnbus buses (part of the OVV system) leave from railway stations, while Postbus buses leave from post offices. In many parts of the country, there are daily and weekly tourist cards (Netzkarte) for travel by rail and by bus. Cycling trails are ubiquitous in Austria. Bicycles can be rented from many train stations for EUR 15 per day (EUR 10 with a valid train ticket) and returned at any station for an additional EUR 5/10 fee.
Apart from the beloved by tourists Vienna and Salzburg, the price of accommodation will not be very high. For the most part, travel agencies book accommodation for a small fee (usually 2-3 euros) or on bail. Austrian hotels usually meet high standards of cleanliness and comfort. Everywhere except Vienna, the price of a double room with a bathroom is at least 50 euros and less for more modest rooms. Affordable B&B prices can usually be found in small family hotels (Gasthofe and Gasthauser), from 40 euros for a double room. Similar prices in boarding houses (Fruhstuckspension) in large settlements. Many travel agencies offer private accommodation, and Zimmer Frei roadside signs are ubiquitous in rural, touristy areas. The price of a double room here is usually 30-45 euros.
There are about a hundred HI hostels (Jugendherberge or Jugendgastehaus) in the country, which are run by OJHV and OJHW. Rates here are 12-18 euros, usually including a simple breakfast. There are always sleeping bags available, the rental of which is usually included in the payment. Lunch and dinner are often prepared in such places for an additional fee (3.50-5.50 euros). There are also excellent and cheap private hostels. The high standards adopted in Austria are also typical for campsites, most of them have laundries, shops and eateries. Most often they are open from May to September, and at sports winter resorts - all year round. On average, the cost of living in them is 5-6 euros per person plus 3-9 euros per tent.
Food in Austria is not very expensive, but meals will still be a significant part of your daily budget. At the same time, the prices for drinks are surprisingly low - especially for wines, and cafes and bars will bring you real pleasure. Ready-made products can be tasted at bakeries (Backerei) and pastry shops (Konditorei), which sell pastries, cakes and sandwiches. Fast food establishments - Wurstelstand (hot dogs), Bratwurst (grilled sausages), Kasekrainer (spicy sausages and cheese), Bosna (spicy and thin Balkan sausages) and Currywurst, which usually serve minced meat with bread rolls (Semmel), mustard ( Senf) and a glass of beer (Dose). Many places offer a variety of snacks and meals. You can eat in a similar way in restaurants.
In city cafes (Kaffeehauser) and bars for 5 euros or more you can have a good snack. Most restaurants and cafes have casual dishes on their menus, such as Serbische Bohnensuppe or Gulaschsuppe, which cost less than 4 euros. Among the main second courses (Hauptspeisen), there are most often schnitzels with a side dish of potatoes, vegetables or salad: Viennese schnitzel (Wienerschnitzel) is fried in bread crumbs, Pariser schnitzel (Pariser) - in batter, natural schnitzel (Natur) is served in own juice or with a creamy sauce. In general, the price of a standard second course is 5-10 euros, although the lunch menu (Mittagsmenu) has a wide selection of cheaper dishes.
Citizens of Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan must provide the same package of documents as the Russians. Visa cost for Ukrainians
60 EUR, for citizens of Kazakhstan
Citizens of the Republic of Belarus and Kazakhstan submit documents to the German Embassy in Minsk and Alm-Ata, respectively.
The country has a developed railway service connecting all major cities. There are various discount systems on the routes.
You can buy tickets for the bus, tram or metro at ticket booths and Vorverkaufsscheine advance ticket offices, as well as tobacco kiosks. A special option for tourists is reduced price tickets with a validity period of 1 to 3 days.
Taxis can be called by phone from a hotel or restaurant, found at special parking lots at train stations and airports, in the center of large cities. But you can't catch a car right on the street under any guise. The cost of driving around the city is indicated on the meter, an additional landing is paid: about 2.5 EUR. Tipping is optional but encouraged (Austrian discreet).
Austrian Embassy in Moscow: Starokonyushenny per., 1; tel .: fax:
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Austria is a country of traditional active, cultural and "green" tourism. Tourism is an important part of the Austrian economy, accounting for almost 9% of the Austrian gross domestic product.
A visit to Austria usually includes a trip to Vienna, visiting pubs and enjoying the Vienna Waltz music. Mozart's birthplace, Salzburg, is popular, as is Innsbruck, the capital of Tyrol surrounded by the Alps. In the western part of the country, the Voralberg region borders the picturesque Lake Constance.
Austrian skiing and hiking attracts the most tourists. For those interested in art, Austria has many museums and theaters.
Tourism is a significant source of income for Austria today, covering the traditionally negative trade balance. The dynamics of tourism development, spending on it and profits from it has common features with similar indicators in Switzerland. From 1964 to 1990, tourism expenditures grew at a high rate and increased 28 times, income from tourism increased 11 times, and the tourism surplus - 6 times.
The tourism surplus during the post-war decades has been the most important source of covering the trade deficit for Austria. But in the 1970s and 1980s, financial receipts from tourism declined:
Tourism development in Austria is driven by the following factors:
Every fifth able-bodied citizen works in tourism and hospitality, about 330,000 people. In 2013, the volume of direct value added in this sector of the economy amounted to about 5.% of the GDP of 18 billion euros. The largest tourist market in Austria is the sixth in Europe and the eleventh in the world. Austria is in first place in terms of income per tourist - 1,750 euros.
A visit to Austria mainly includes a trip to Vienna (Vienna), visiting pubs and then enjoying the music of the Vienna Waltz, this is ideal. In practice, many are limited to pubs and city walks.
In addition to Vienna, Salzburg, the birthplace of Mozart, and Innsbruck, the capital of Tyrol, are popular. In the western part of the country, the Vorarlberg region and, of course, the picturesque Lake Constance.
For those interested in art, there are many museums and theaters in Austria. Vienna is home to the real Museum Quarter (Museumsquartier) - the largest museum complex in Europe. It covers an area of 60 thousand square meters.
The most famous natural attraction in Austria is Lake Neusiedl/Fertő. There are many beaches on the shores of the lake, limited fishing licenses are allowed.
I want to say that despite the great popularity of winter holidays, Austria is good in summer too. There are many well-organized hiking trails in the valleys and beyond. Also, you should pay attention to cycling.
The Alps in Austria can be subdivided into several areas, combining differences in the nature of the slopes, the level of difficulty of the trails, popularity, service, infrastructure development and natural features.
The region of Central Tyrol (Tyrol), located between the Arlberg and Kitzbühel mountains, is a plateau surrounded in the north by the Gschwandtkopf and Rosshütte mountains and including part of the Zillertal valley in the south. The most popular and famous resorts in Austria are located here.
The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck. One of the most popular ski resorts, twice, in 1964 and 1976, the Winter Olympic Games were held here. Good transport accessibility by land, airlines connect Innsbruck with major cities in Europe - Zurich, Vienna, Munich, Frankfurt, Amsterdam. The ski season is from early December to late April. Many tourists come to the Stubai Glacier even in summer. The city is surrounded by extensive ski areas: Hungerburg, Patscherkofel, Glusenger, Mutterer Alm, Axamer Lizum and Ranger Kempfl.
In the Zillertal valley there are small villages and towns - Fügen, Zell am Ziller (wiki), Finkenberg (wiki) and Mayrhofen (Mayrhofen). All of them form a single ski area of slopes, ski lifts, alpine hotels.
North of Mayrhofen, on a plateau surrounded by the Gschwandtkopf and Rosshütte mountains, there is also the famous ski resort of Central Tyrol - Seefeld (Seefeld in Tirol, wiki). This is an elite resort with fashionable hotels, restaurants and casinos.
The Ötztal Valley is the largest in the Eastern Alps. This area is located in the south of Tyrol, on the border with Italy. Excellent climatic conditions, dry cold winter air, a large number of sunny days, glaciers and stable snow cover.
In Ötztal there are some of the leaders of Austrian ski tourism - the resorts of Sölden and Hochsölden. The main trails lead to the Rettenbach glacier (google map), Tiefenbach and Gais-lachgol glaciers. The highest "panoramic" road in Europe (2800 m) leads to them. In the depths of the valley is the highest alpine resort - Obergurgl (Obergurgl).
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There is an interesting bird in the gull family, the number of which has been growing in Europe, Asia and Canada in recent years. She is, when compared to other small seagulls, graceful and friendly. This interesting bird is called black-headed gull.