Water tourism

Types of mountain tourism and their description, as well as the minimum required equipment

Preparing for an independent hike or travel by car begins with the selection of things and clothes. They must remain comfortable, take up little space, fulfill their purpose. Comfortable travel equipment is the main factor in getting pleasant emotions from being in nature, during independent trips.

Equipment Requirements

First, a list of things is compiled, which depends on the type of travel. If you plan to travel by car, you can take a relatively large amount of luggage - a camping tent, a gas stove, a heater. For hiking, tourist equipment and equipment should be compact, preferably - to perform several functions.

  • Material. For a hike in the mountains or forest, moisture protection is important. Therefore, backpacks and tents made of waterproof material are chosen for outdoor activities.
  • Weight, dimensions. All travel equipment is placed in a backpack, car trunk. Some models are unfolded (assembled) on the parking lot so that they do not take up much space in the stowed state.
  • Operation. Breakdowns are possible during the hike. This applies to homemade tourist equipment. The way out is that things can be repaired, corrected by yourself without special tools.
  • Versatility. Each piece of equipment serves a dual or triple purpose. This reduces the overall weight, the volume of luggage.

These parameters are checked even before buying in an online store or designing a homemade product. So, a sleeping bag should fit freely in a backpack, have a waterproof cover.


Collecting cargo for travel begins with its distribution by type. Hiking equipment is divided into several categories. For each, you need to determine the purpose, functionality and demand for a hike or trip by car. This is influenced by the period of independent travel, modes of travel, individual or group company.

Types, classification of tourist and hiking equipment:

  • Clothes, shoes, hats, and other accessories that the tourist wears on himself. They must protect from weather conditions, facilitate the correct distribution of the load, and not restrict movement.
  • Movement and transportation of goods. These include cars, including campers, skis, bicycles, sea, river vessels. These vehicles need to be adapted for long-term use in extreme conditions.
  • Accommodation and rest. For comfortable recuperation and sleep, camping tents and sleeping bags are used. Additional items - kitchen utensils, means for lighting a fire.
  • Special. These include life jackets, tourist, hiking first aid kits, ice axes, climbing tourist equipment and equipment, maps, compasses.

These things can be group or individual. In the latter case, they are used for the needs of the entire group of travelers.

Types and classification of tourist equipment, camping equipment

Hiking is a great way to get away from the hustle and bustle of the city, get some fresh air and enjoy nature. And also to maintain your physical shape. But not everyone is enthusiastic about this type of outdoor activity. The prospect of spending the night in a tent, cooking over a fire and the lack of various industrial goods causes real panic for many. But everything is not so scary: correctly selected modern tourist equipment will dispel all myths about the inconvenience and complexity of hiking.

Camping equipment is divided into individual and group. Clothes, shoes, backpack, sleeping bag, rug, headlamp, dishes, toiletries are individual. And the group includes a tent, orienteering equipment, dishes for a fire, a first aid kit.

Backpackers usually dress in layers. The first layer is thermal underwear. It removes excess moisture and helps not to freeze and overheat. The second layer is fleece clothing. It will come in handy at any time of the year. Fleece has long supplanted wool because it is lighter and warms up even if it gets wet. It is recommended to use clothing made of membrane material as a top layer. It is water-repellent and wind-resistant.

Trekking boots are the most comfortable for hiking. They are designed for walking on natural terrain. Their advantages in comparison with ordinary shoes are:

  • Better grip on clay, loose and rocky surfaces.
  • Protection of the legs from injury by fixing the ankle.
  • High wear resistance.

For the production of trekking shoes, membrane materials are used that do not allow moisture to penetrate inside and at the same time provide ventilation.

It is worth dragging on an uncomfortable backpack, and it will immediately become clear how important this camping equipment is and how much depends on its correct choice.

The main parameter of a backpack is its volume. It depends on the physique of the tourist, the amount of things and the duration of the trip. The optimal volume will be about 100 liters. If necessary, the size can be reduced, for this tourist backpacks are equipped with many fasteners and straps.

A backpack must be equipped with a frame in the back area, as well as a harness - straps and a belt. And also with a carrying handle. An important condition is the presence of pockets.

In the manufacture of specialized travel backpacks, durable waterproof material is used, as well as high-quality accessories.

The sleeping bag provides the tourist with comfort and convenience while sleeping. By their design, they are divided into cocoons and blankets.

The cocoon is shaped like the human body, which allows it to better retain heat. Many people find it inconvenient due to the narrowing in the leg area.

A rectangular blanket with the same width at the top and bottom. It can have a hood for low temperatures. The zipper turns the sleeping bag into a large blanket.

Selection of tourist equipment and equipment for hiking, traveling by car. Classification, types and requirements. Homemade travel gear.

Ski tourism is a favorite type of active recreation. This is a great way to improve your physical fitness, temper your body and strengthen your immune system, and increase your endurance. And besides, skiing is a lot of positive emotions from winter landscapes and communication with like-minded people.

Despite the seeming simplicity, a ski trip is not just a walk, so you need to carefully prepare for it. After all, skiers are in the cold for a long time and move not only on virgin snow, but also on rough terrain with thickets of vegetation, snowdrifts and rubble. Therefore, special attention is paid to equipment, clothing, footwear, as well as technical skills.

Before setting off, the route is carefully planned, if necessary, transport issues are resolved, the necessary equipment is selected, the trip time is calculated, food and water supplies, etc.

Given the fact that it gets dark early in winter, tourists set out early in the morning. The first rest is done in 15-20 minutes. after the start of the movement - this makes it possible to eliminate the identified problems in the equipment, put things in a backpack better, take off excess clothes if it is hot. Subsequent halts are made in 40 minutes, their duration is no more than 10 minutes. In strong wind and frost, the periods of movement are reduced to 30 minutes, and halts - to 3-5 minutes. However, there is no strict reference to the time of rest. The head of the group decides on their necessity based on expediency.

Along the route, a group of skiers follows each other in single file, maintaining a distance of about 5 m between them on a flat road and at least 10 m on slopes. The leader of the group goes first, the last one is one of the most experienced skiers. The leader of the campaign can take another place in the column - at the end or in the center. It all depends on the situation. The closing athlete controls the movement of the group and the condition of the participants, and also helps in minor repairs of equipment.

Very often a group of tourists has to lay a ski track on virgin soil For this, the one who goes first makes a track and steps aside, letting the others pass, and stands at the end of the column

At the halts, tourists sit on stumps, fallen trees, clearing them of snow and spreading a jacket. Sometimes they sit directly on a backpack or rest while standing, leaning on ski poles.

Ski tourism obliges athletes to have orienteering skills. In winter, this is especially difficult, because all landmarks are covered with snow. Therefore, the main assistants are the map and the compass, and the distance traveled is determined by the time and speed of movement. The tourist's map must contain information about the relief, vegetation in a given area, rivers and streams, about roads and routes, settlements, etc. The participants of the hike study this information in detail before setting off.

Gel-skiing has become one of the new directions. Daredevils climb to the top of the mountain by helicopter, and from there go down on skis. They assess the difficulty of the route from a height and develop tactics of movement.

Another kind is sandboarding. This is ski tourism for those who cannot wait for winter and snow. Athletes ski on the sands of the dunes, going to Algeria or Morocco for this.

Alpine skiing is a special sport chosen by those who love to ski on the slopes of the mountains. Ski resorts are open at any time of the year, where you can rent equipment, as well as use the services of a professional instructor. The skier can choose the slope according to his abilities, the difficulty of the slopes is determined by the color. However, even the easiest track requires a certain level of training.

Water tourism is a sports discipline and active recreation, which consists in passing a variety of routes on the water. Traveling reservoirs can be rivers, seas, lakes, and reservoirs, and the flotation devices used for the application vary widely. Water trips are gaining popularity as a type of family vacation. There is also a competitive component - tournaments are held in some types of rafting. They develop teamwork skills, strength, endurance, discipline and self-control.

Unsportsmanlike walks on rivers or seas can be carried out on motor ships or liners. Water tourism is diverse in terms of routes and their duration. You can make one-day rafting along the nearest rivulet in your area or go to the mountains, where you struggle with the current and rapids for several days or even weeks.

The first group is intended for amateurs and is less difficult and more secure. Category hikes are intended for sports competitions and for obtaining qualifying categories. There are 6 categories of difficulty in total, of which 4-6 are intended only for well-trained athletes.

The level of difficulty is set by the commission. She travels to the areas of the reservoir where the competition is planned to be held and assesses the number of obstacles and the difficulty of overcoming them. If the water obstacles are natural, the category of the route may change as natural factors change.

Before drawing up a route for rafting on the reservoir, it is necessary to collect data on the terrain, landscape, climate in the area, as well as on the reservoir itself - its especially difficult areas, places that can be used for a halt. The information received is systematized and presented in the form of a document in the established form to the Tourism Federation along with the planned trip schedule. The schedule is mandatory: the group must be at the specified point exactly at the time that is set by the schedule.

In addition, the rules of water tourism establish that the group must report its location to the organizers of the trip and the qualification commission within the agreed time frame. This is done for safety reasons - failure to provide a report is regarded as a signal of trouble on the way. The date and place of the team's contact are marked on the route map.

Another document drawn up when organizing a trip is an income and expense estimate. It reflects all expenses for transport, food, purchase (rent) of group equipment. The purchase of personal equipment of the participants is not included in the estimate.

Routes for families and amateurs are made by the participants themselves, taking into account their imagination and level of preparedness. As far as sports waterways are concerned, they must meet the established technical requirements and be qualified in terms of difficulty.

In our country, water tourism is considered national. It began its development in the era of the USSR, after the Second World War. The peak of popularity came in the 1960s - tourists were exploring the Soviet reservoirs, in which there is no shortage on the territory of the country. For a long time, the frame kayak "Taimen" was used as a floating craft. The development of tourism was associated with the emergence of the bard movement - the songs of many talented bards are still known.

In the 1970s. Sergey Papush designed a catamaran. With its help, from now on it was possible to overcome the most difficult routes inaccessible to kayaks. Over time, the original design of the catamaran has been improved, and today it is the most popular means of travel by water.

Swimming aids used abroad, such as rafts and kayaks, appeared in Russia later. The kayak took root faster, because until then we did not have single-seat boats that allowed an athlete to raft alone on difficult areas. But the analogue of the raft was the catamaran loved by everyone. Therefore, for a long time rafts were used only in competitions.

After the collapse of the USSR, water tourism lost state support. In this regard, the activity in this area was suspended: sports sections were closed, hiking was stopped. Some athletes have learned how to make watercraft with their own hands, modifying and complementing their design. After the crisis, the development of water trips resumed. New equipment came from abroad, exchange of experience with colleagues from other countries became possible.

Hello dear readers. This article will focus on how you can spend your vacation with health benefits, interesting and active. I will talk about what mountain tourism is like, and what sports directions it includes. What are its "charms" and what equipment you need to have with you so that everything goes smoothly.

What is called mountain tourism

Mountain tourism is an active type of recreation. This definition includes activities such as rock climbing, river rafting, expedition treks and more. The essence of this type of tourism is walking in a mountainous area. The name "mountain" is applicable only to those routes that pass at an altitude of over 2500 meters above sea level.

Climbing climbers

Peculiarities of mountain tourism:

Difficulty Categories

In mountain tourism, there are categories of complexity introduced by the Unified All-Russian Sports Classification of Tourist Routes. Each of them is determined by the length of the route, its duration, the number and level of difficulty of obstacles.

Tourist on a hike

There are 6 categories of difficulty for trekking sites.

The first category is available to everyone, even beginners without preparation. These routes are short, without difficult obstacles, usually in low mountainous areas. Hikes of the first category are not hazardous to health, do not require special training and equipment.

The second category is areas of simple difficulty, covered with ice and snow. The steepness is estimated at 25-30 degrees. Basic training is required to conquer the route.

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