Tourism has long become a profitable business that occupies an important place in the economy. The tourism industry is dynamic and highly profitable. It provides intensive growth in many industries and the generation of new jobs.
In the production, promotion and organization of the consumption of a tourist product, many enterprises of different industries and non-material sphere take part. Only a few of them are directly involved in serving vacationers:
The objects of the tourism industry include:
One of the most important segments of the tourism industry is the accommodation system - the hotel industry, which can be conventionally represented by four models. The European model of accommodation has the highest reputation, which is different:
The tourism industry highlights the Asian style of hospitality as the exact opposite of the European model. Its distinctive features:
The development of international tourism is based on the effective commercialization of tourism products. Tourism is a set of services that can really be tested only at the moment of their consumption and which, unlike industrial products, cannot be systematically reproduced. Selling tourism products successfully requires a trusting relationship between the customer and the seller. Therefore, the reputation of tour operators, hotels and airlines is very important here.
The hotel industry takes the main place in international tourism. Tourist flows directly depend on the size of this sector of the tourism industry and the quality of the premises offered.
The problems of the hotel industry (management, financing, design) are central to the economic analysis of tourism. The economic analysis of the hotel sector, in turn, is based on the analysis of the effectiveness of the investment.
The quality of the accommodation and customer service is ensured by the staff, and their efficient operation is essential to the success of international tourism. With the advent of mass tourism, many types of accommodation have been created.They are different in different countries, even within the same region. For example, in France - one of the main tourist destinations in the world - a wide range of housing names can be grouped into three groups:
- hotels that have a gradation from one to four luxury stars; - camps and rest houses with a gradation from one to four stars; - dwelling type "lives de france", located in or near small villages and representing a small cottage, country house, room in a house or part of a manor.
Another European country with a long tradition of hospitality - Switzerland - offers accommodation in 2,600 hotels of the Swiss Hotel Association, apartment-type buildings, 450 camps, holiday homes and youth hostels for people under 25, wellness centers , clinics, climatic resorts.
The following places of residence are offered in the UK:
- hotels, motels, guest houses or houses in villages, which are classified according to the "crown" system from one to five, depending on the services offered and their quality; - rest houses, including cottages, bungalows, apartment-type premises, classified according to the systems of "keys" from one to five.
What key tasks is the Tourism and Hospitality national project aimed at, and when the approval of this most important project for the industry is expected, the head of Rostourism Zarina Doguzova told a meeting of the Federation Council. Details are in our report from the meeting.
At the "government hour" in the Federation Council, the head of Rostourism Zarina Doguzova presented the main provisions, goals and objectives of the national project "Tourism and the hospitality industry", the concept of which has been actively worked on for the past six months.
As Ms. Doguzova emphasized, the tasks that the national project "Tourism" is designed to solve fall into three main major areas of work. For each of these areas, within the framework of the future national project, the department proposes to form a separate federal project with its own instruments.
The first direction concerns the development of tourism infrastructure and the creation of quality tourism products. Among the tools - the creation of comprehensive master plans of territories, allowing to reveal the potential of each region, subsidizing the regions in terms of the formation of complete attractive city centers, the creation of a resort environment and infrastructure.
The list of measures includes providing affordable loans to businesses and investors for the construction and reconstruction of hotels and sanatorium-resort complexes, provision of grant support for the creation of non-capital modular hotels, campgrounds, car campings, branded routes, beach development, etc.
The second direction of the national tourism project provides for the implementation of a set of measures aimed at increasing the availability of domestic destinations and the awareness of Russians about them.
Within the framework of this federal project, it is planned to continue measures to reduce the cost of travel and tours, including support for children's travel. These will be programs like the return of tourist cashback, subsidizing charters in domestic directions.
As Zarina Doguzova emphasized, the task is also to put on a systematic track the promotion of the tourist potential of Russia on the Russian and foreign markets. In this regard, it is planned to conduct joint marketing campaigns with the regions.
A large block of work is related to the digitalization of tourism in terms of creating convenient digital platforms and services for tourists for quick and convenient travel planning around the country.
The third area includes measures to improve the efficiency of tourism industry management. It is planned to finance training activities, improve the regulatory framework, including the development of a new federal sectoral law, improvement of the system of statistics and sectoral data.
According to Zarina Doguzova, the instruments of all three federal projects are absolutely universal and allow developing any region and practically any type of tourism.
"The industry depends on the work of dozens of ministries and departments, therefore the national project is seen as the most effective mechanism for project management, allowing to synchronize and coordinate the efforts of all participants, to ensure the integration of regional problems and synergy of resources," said the head of Rostourism.
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