Requirements for new mechanisms ensuring the development of the tourist complex
The non-competitiveness of Belarus as a destination in the tourism market, the ineffectiveness of the management system of the tourism complex and the chronic lag in the context of achieving the goals of tourism development set by the state do not allow the intersectoral tourism complex to become a significant sector of the national economy. To realize the potential of tourism as a significant economic factor in development, it is necessary to substantiate an effective mechanism for the development of the tourist complex.
The essence of economic, economic and management mechanisms depends on the properties and nature of economic entities interacting with a variety of objects (economic, social, natural, cultural, etc.) under the influence of a number of factors of the prevailing environment. The modern economic mechanism is defined as a set of economic organizational structures, legal norms, institutions, forms and methods of management, designed to link and harmonize public, group and private interests, to ensure the functioning and development of the national economy in accordance with the requirements of economic laws and taking into account the historical specifics [Shimov , Kryukov, 2014, S. 00]. An analysis of the essence of the whole variety of existing and applied mechanisms in economics is the goal of a number of scientific articles on economics and indicates the presence of scientific pluralism in this issue. For example, M. Yanynina analyzes 12 interpretations of economic mechanisms , and O. Stogul - 26 definitions of economic, economic and organizational-economic mechanisms . The theory of economic mechanisms was laid down by L. Hurwitz, R. Myerson and E. Maskin and, in general, explains the behavior of market players from the point of view of their greatest efficiency and the need to institutionalize the rules of their behavior in order to obtain the expected effect in the economy [Izmalkov et al., 2008] ... The mechanisms developed by economic sciences are aimed at increasing the efficiency of certain types of activities, business entities, industries, national economies, as well as the processes of redistribution of benefits and the formation of a favorable socio-economic environment.
To solve the problems of the development of the tourist complex of the Republic of Belarus, the first place is given to the management mechanisms that ensure its competitiveness and effective functioning. The last of the proposed mechanisms for the competitiveness of economic regions [Rusak, 2014; Shashko, 2010] and national regulation of international tourism [Gorbyleva, 2012] are logical, complex, they provide for institutionalization, cover many processes of planning, organization, incentives and control at the national and regional levels. However, the alignment of the structure of these mechanisms in modern conditions of the dynamics of the economic environment, taking into account the state of its factors, is, rather, not their strength, but their weakness. Each of the processes in such mechanisms requires competencies, resources and time, the lack of which (and this is today's reality) leads to the failure of first one or two processes, and then the entire mechanism. Institutionalization, on which these mechanisms rely, in conditions of limited resources (financial, material and technical, personnel) in combination with the empowerment of new institutions with rights and responsibilities can lead not to the creation of a mechanism for achieving positive results, but to the formation of a mechanism of inhibition, accompanied by bureaucratization, the adoption of suboptimal decisions or half-decisions, a formal approach to assessing results, etc. This problem is especially relevant in the case of the creation of state institutions of management [Shimov, Kryukov, 2014, pp. 44-145].
To solve the problems of the development of the tourist complex of Belarus, it is necessary to launch the process of accumulating its competitive potential. Competitive potential is defined as an area formed by the combination of internal and external competitive opportunities formed in the process of transformation of resources by the tools and mechanisms available to the management system under the constraints imposed by endogenous and exogenous environmental factors [Shutilin, 2014]. None of the existing mechanisms allows today to increase the competitive potential of the tourist complex.
Thus, the complexity and scale of the above-mentioned problems of the development of the tourist complex of Belarus and the accumulation of its competitive potential require significant efforts, a strong lobby and resources that are not yet available for the tourist complex and are unlikely to be available in the coming years. Therefore, the task arises of creating a lightweight, but at the same time effective mechanism that can, on the one hand, solve the problem of a significant breakthrough in the development of the tourism industry, and on the other hand, overcome the conservatism of the existing tourism management system. The development of a new mechanism should:
- rely on the identification of the key points of the problem and the "locomotive" factors of its solution; - be aimed at minimizing the number of started processes; - make the most of the management resources of existing institutions without creating new ones; - to be minimally dependent on government funding.
The geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of the destination is one of the types of economic mechanisms and part of the economic mechanism. As a type of economic mechanism, it focuses on the regulation of spatial and economic processes in which individual entities are involved (enterprises, regions, industries, clusters, etc.). The economic mechanism sets in motion the socio-economic system of the country, using the entire arsenal of economic, legal and other instruments, including norms and standards, economic assessments of resources, finance and credit, price, profit, wages, premium [Shimov, Kryukov, 2014, p. 00], and the geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of the destination, as a specific part of the economic mechanism, triggers the development of the tourism industry.
The subject of the substantiation of the geoeconomic mechanism for ensuring the competitiveness of the destination is the geoeconomics of tourism [Tarasenok, 2011]. The object of the geoeconomics of tourism is a geographic space (area, region, country) that constitutes the purpose of a visitor's travel (or a segment of visitors), which has the necessary infrastructure for accommodation, food, entertainment, cognitive and recreational activities and is a subject of competition in the inbound tourism market and a strategic object entrepreneurship. The subject of tourism geoeconomics is the spatial and economic processes in which the destination is involved and which accompany the production and consumption of its tourism product. Examples of such processes are competition of a destination, cooperation of tourist enterprises of a destination, the interception of recreational functions by one tourist center from another, promotion of a regional tourist product to neighboring geographic markets, etc. The basis of the methodology of tourism geoeconomics is:
- modern concepts of geoeconomics as a science of the state strategy of active inclusion of countries in the distribution of world income by achieving economic advantages [Luttwak, 1990; Halizak, 2012; Kochetov, 2010; Dergachev, 2003]; - the doctrine of destinations [Bieger, 2002; Zorin I., Zorin A., 2011]; - theoretical models of polarization of the world tourist space [Pirozhnik, 1996; Alexandrova, 2002].
Ecotourism in Belarus: problems and prospects Ecotourism can become a significant direction of domestic and inbound tourism in Belarus, but there is no proper infrastructure and cooperation.
Two years ago, Crimea decided to attract connoisseurs of Black Sea cuisine and high-quality wine, and prepared a wine-gastronomic tourist route "Wine Road of Crimea" - no one was scared that it was a project "from above", from the Ministry of Resorts and Tourism of the Republic of Crimea. On the contrary, someone had to take over the formation of the program, summarize everything that Crimea has to offer.