Mountaineering is one of the most difficult and dangerous types of trekking. The mountains have always attracted people with the opportunity to test themselves, to feel an unforgettable experience. Mountaineering requires a high level of both psychological, physical and technical training.
Mountain peaks are conquered in all countries where there are such peaks. All over the world rallies of tourists-climbers are regularly held. This movement is also widespread in our country. While climbing glaciers, climbers often make unexpected discoveries. For example, in the Alps, the remains of animals and people of various periods, starting with the ice age, are often found. Such finds are not uncommon in our mountains.
Here's one of the latest examples. In the early 1990s. A group of climbers on the Kichi-Murudzhu glacier, which is located on the spurs of the Main Caucasian ridge, discovered a plane from the Great Patriotic War with a dead pilot. Thanks to the persistent search of enthusiasts, it was possible not only to find out the name of the pilot, but also to restore all the details of the heroic air battle in which he died.
Rock climbing is similar in many respects, but all different from mountaineering, which has different options (for example, with or without technical equipment). The popularity of this type of activity is so high that where there are no rocks, climbing walls are built (for example, in sports and technical centers or in mini-parks of extreme entertainment).
In various sources, you can find different dates when this sports discipline was formed. But still, most often its occurrence is associated with the conquest of the highest point of the Alps, Mont Blanc. This was done by the physician Michel Packard and his guide Jacques Balma in 1786. Later, a monument was erected to them, which is located in the world center of mountaineering - Chamonix. We continue to answer the question of what mountaineering is. Now let's take a closer look at the techniques and some of its varieties.
What is the use of mountaineering?
There are many benefits to mountaineering. The most obvious benefits are improvements in both your physical health, increased strength, and weight loss through aerobic exercise. Other less obvious or “less tangible” benefits include psychological training and teamwork skills. All this you will use in your work and personal life, without even knowing it!
Who can mountaineer?
There is no real age limit to start mountaineering. The world knows examples of successful climbers who started after 50 years. Of course, children under the age of 16 must be supervised by an adult. Anyone can start doing this sport, and even with a low level of training, after some time, achieve certain success. To the peaks 1B k. any healthy person can climb. Any planned ascent must correspond to the knowledge and skills of the participants, but not only each participant, but the whole group as a whole, must be ready for the upcoming one.
How long does it take to climb? Short routes can last for several hours, followed by a descent on foot from the summit. The next step, when the routes take several days and require an overnight stay on the mountain. There are also quite extreme ascents that take more than one week or even a month. This mainly concerns high-altitude ascents.
Mountaineering - it is clear from the word itself - is directly related to the Alps. It was here that a little more than 200 years ago, people began to conquer high mountains. Traditionally, the beginning of mountaineering is associated with the ascent of Dr. Michel Paccard in company with a guide to the highest point of the Alps - Mont Blanc (4810 m).
At the foot of the mountain in the city of Chamonix, a monument was erected in honor of this event, depicting Paccard looking at Mont Blanc. Chamonix has since become famous as a major ski resort. Paying tribute to tradition, in 1924 the first Winter Olympics were held here.
Today, mountaineering for most people is a mixture of excitement, travel and extreme sports. But this was not always the case. During its development, mountaineering has been driven by various drivers. Historically, the following types of it can be distinguished.
Dr. Pakkar, being a human scientist, climbed Mont Blanc in 1786 in order to measure its height. He used a barometer to measure. Packard was wrong by 72 m or 1.5%, which can be attributed to an error in the technique and method of calculations at the time.
Later, throughout the 19th century, when most of the Alpine peaks first met people, it was scientific interest that drove people in their desire to conquer the peaks. For example, the first ascent to the highest mountain in Europe - Elbrus (832 m higher than the Alpine Mont Blanc) - was made by the expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1829).
In the twentieth century. the goal of the climbers is changing. By the 1920s. there are no mountains left below 7 km that have not been visited by people. And there are not so many of those that are higher than 7 km. In addition, climbing to such a height requires a long time, equipment and financial resources. The driver of mountaineering in the twentieth century. become governments and people associated with it, who sponsor expeditions to the highest peaks of the planet.
A classic case of such an ascent is the conquest of the highest point of the planet - Chomolungma - by British citizen Edmund Hillary in company with Nepalese Tenzig Norgay in 1953
Mountaineering is considered the most difficult and dangerous sport. To do it, you need to have a sufficient level of physical and psychological preparation, as well as have certain skills.
The conquest of the mountains has always attracted a person. The sensations experienced at the top are incomparable to anything else. Therefore, mountaineering is practiced in all corners of the world where there are mountains. Russia is no exception. Alps, massifs of the Caucasus and Krasnoyarsk mountains, etc. every year a huge number of both professional athletes and amateurs are gathered.
The exact date of the appearance of this sport has not been set. However, most often this is considered the date of the conquest of Mont Blanc - the highest point of the Alps by Michel Packard, accompanied by Jacques Balma. It happened in 1786. In the city of Chamonix, which has become the center of world mountaineering, a monument was erected to the pioneers.
In 1865, British climbers conquered the Matterhorn peak (4478 m), located in the Alpine mountains.
High-altitude mountaineering began its history in 1907, when the Englishman Tom Longstaff conquered the Himalayan peak of Trisup with a height of more than 7 km. above sea level.
In 1950, the French Erzog and Lachenal, as part of an expedition, ascended the summit of Annapurna in the Himalayas, located at an altitude of more than 8000 m.
Mount Chomolungma Everest (8848 m), which is the highest point of the planet, was taken by N. Tenzing and E. Hillary in 1953
It is an ascent to the mountains along a difficult route to a height of no more than 6.5 km using special equipment. The route can be laid over sheer cliffs, ice and snow. In technical mountaineering, there are many separate areas, the common goal of which is not the conquest of the maximum height, but the passage of the most difficult distances.
This is an ascent to an altitude of over 6.5 km. Here, the main achievement of an athlete is the conquest of the highest peaks. The greatest danger of such ascents lies in the great stress on the human body. Indeed, at high altitudes, there may be a lack of oxygen. Therefore, oxygen equipment is becoming an integral part of climbers' equipment. But even using it, it is impossible for a person to stay at an altitude of more than 8 km for a long time.
Professional ascents can be of a mixed nature, they are also called high-altitude ascents.
Mountaineering has given life to other disciplines such as rock climbing, ice climbing, mountain tourism.
Despite the fact that both can be practiced by the same person, mountaineering and rock climbing are not the same disciplines.
You come back from a mountain hike, and they ask you: "Well, how did you get it there?", considering that you were going to the mountains as to an open-air climbing wall. Or you come from an alpine camp, and people are surprised to hear about what the shower is like and how much food costs. Well, and quite a classic, which has become a memorial, case when they say to you: “Where are you climbing in Moscow? We don't have mountains! "
The article is intended for beginners who have never tried either one or the other, or the third, or who have tried one thing. Let's just start with the tourists :) Tourists are those guys who move from point A to point B and find a thrill in this movement. They have many ways of such movement: their legs, skis, bicycles, horses, cars, kayaks, catamarans, sailboats, etc. ... Among them there are those who see the greatest thrill in walking in the mountains with a backpack. Here they are -
They go, as I said, from A to B. It looks like this: For example, a group arrives in a village at the foot of the mountains with some unusual name for a plain man, for example "Terskol", gets under backpacks and after a week or two he comes to a village, for example, Tyrnyauz. On the way, they cross mountain ranges through passes. Their backpacks are huge and heavy - you need to carry food with you all the way, because until the end of the hike, mountain tourists will not see any settlement where they can buy it. Equipment with them also carry a lot of different things - you never know what to meet on the way. There is nowhere to wash either. Well, except in the streams flowing from the glaciers :). Even though you are in the mountains, it is beautiful, but the backpack is heavy, it is far from barbecues and forfeits with a sprite in civilization, and to climb the mountain higher in order to look from there like from the roof of the world to our sinful land somehow does not work - there is not so much time to climb every mountain. With a large backpack, at least climb the pass in order to pass the path, where is it to the top ...
The technique of movement among mountain tourists and climbers is 95% similar. Outwardly, they can only be distinguished by the size of the backpack - it is smaller for climbers.
The equipment you need to get started mountaineering or mountaineering is described here.
Mountain hikers and climbers look quite normal most of the time - they walk on two legs, with a backpack behind them. (Tourists look like this longer than climbers. The latter get to the place where they already need to work with the equipment faster.) Sometimes it gets dumb to go - then they take a rope, all sorts of other pribluda and organize insurance. Insurance is exactly insurance, not a shelf or ladder that helps you move on. In the event of your breakdown (stumbled, stumbled, knocked down a stone, could not resist) she will save your life. Sometimes you have to climb - this is when you have to work not only with your feet, but also with your hands, fingers and grab onto a rock. At the beginner level of mountaineering/mountains. there is almost no urism, and then it becomes more and more. Of course, there is also insurance. But there were some climbers who generally sent these hobbies with backpacks to a famous mother. They were pinned precisely to climb. They hung a rope on the rocky wall closest to the alpine camp and climbed there. Then they smoothly moved to climbing walls, which can be built anywhere. Rock climbing is both an element of mountain tourism/mountaineering and an independent sport. In principle, a person with sporting achievements in rock climbing may not know at all how to set up a tent and never sleep in a sleeping bag, he trained at the climbing wall all the time. An article for those who want to start practicing at the climbing wall: . u/faq-rock-climbing/
Since all three schools developed separately, they are interested in different things, then their route classification system is different, although the designations are similar and newcomers are often confused without knowing in which case what it is about. mountain tourists are classified passes, because they are the main difficulty of the route (in addition to kilometers). The passes are classified into 6 semi-categories, from simple to difficult: 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b. The simplest passes, unworthy of classification, are called non-categorical and are designated "n/k". mountain climbers are interested in peaks. Their routes are marked very similarly: 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b. There are no "n/cs", as well as for some reason "la". In order not to confuse the designations of passes and routes to the peaks, “alps” are usually added to the alphanumeric designation of climbing routes in the letter. The kilometers traveled are not included in the classification at all .. except that only kilometers of altitude :)
Climbers are confused. If we owe the existence of a clear classification among climbers and tourists to the Soviet past, in which someone came up with the idea of calling all this a sport and systematized, then climbing this Soviet past in general killed and we now use the French system (and in general there are about a dozen of these systems). By the way, yes, for the first time climbing competitions were held in the USSR. At the climbing wall, the easiest route will be 4, and then numbers with letters will go: 5a, 5b, 5c, 6a, 6b, 6c, etc. up to 9s. Of course, there is also track 15c - This is specially for Chuck Noriss :)
Why you should love winter mountaineering, what you need to know about it, how to prepare for going to the mountains in the cold season, what are the features of equipment for winter ascents and what accessible areas should you pay attention to for the first winter experience or for a first ascent? Novosibirsk alpinist Alexander Parfyonov, master of sports, three-time champion of Russia, shares his experience, including for the first successful winter ascent of the Ashat wall along route 6A to peak Sabakh.
Once upon a time, until the 70s of the XX century, it was customary to go to the mountains only in the summer season. For the regions of the "extreme south" of the USSR, this time dragged on until September-October, and attempts to make an ascent in winter were perceived as heroism or, in extreme cases, as the cutting edge of mountaineering.
I still remember the lines from "We dissolve in the elements" by Valery Khrishchaty about the first attempt to climb the winter Lenin Peak. As the plot of a good thriller: the wind, throwing a man off the ridge with a top, and a rappelling with fingers frostbitten to blisters.
But mountaineering, like Olympic sports, does not stand still - the athletes themselves, equipment, pharmacology are developing. And now even beginners go to winter training camps in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and the most pressing "problem" is the winter K2. It is human nature to seek the limit of what is possible for himself, and many great climbers put the identity "can" and "want" as one of the aspects of motivation.
Recently the "problems" of winter ascents in the Big wall style have been solved. The residents of Krasnoyarsk climbed peak 4810 (Odessa) along one of the most difficult routes - Voronov (6B), straightening it and going almost 1/3 of the new route. In 2004, a team led by Pugovkin, again from Krasnoyarsk, laid a completely new winter route to Aksu, which has not yet been repeated even in summer.
Poles were pioneers in the conquest of the winter eight-thousanders, who made seven ascents during the calendar winter in 8 years, from 1980 to 1988:
1980, Everest: Leszek Cichy 1984, Manaslu: Maciej Berbeka and Ryszard Gajewski 1985, Cho-Oyu: Maciej Berbeka and Maciej Pawlikowski 1985, Dhaulagiri: Andrzej Czok and Jerzy Kchenzukka 1986: Wielicki 1987, Annapurna: Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer 1988, Lhotse: Krzysztof Wielicki
The last of the "winter" eight-thousanders passed by now - Nangaparbat - was passed on February 26, 2016 after more than 20 attempts. At the moment, no man has set foot in the winter, only to the top of K2.
As we can see, climbers from all over the world find new "problems" all the time, including in winter, set goals and achieve goals, even if it takes 20 or even 40 attempts.
First, and most importantly, in my opinion, to the already familiar factors of the complexity of the relief, the complexity of teamwork, rockfall and avalanche danger, one more is added - cold. That is, a climber who goes on an ascent in winter must take into account the risks of frostbite, fatigue from the cold and moral fatigue from the "permafrost". Indeed, in our hemisphere, on the cold northern walls, you can not see the disk of the Sun for days, or even weeks.
And yet, if in the summer you are caught by a night on the mountain, and you are not ready for it, this can lead to a maximum of stable discomfort for 7-8 hours or a cold. In winter, this is an emergency. Here you need to be especially careful: a cold night without movement will surely end with frostbite. It is better to work: hang the railing (albeit slowly, but hang it up), humming, at least equip the shelf. Even a minute loss of control over a freezing limb can end badly.
North face of Sabakh peak (Turkestan ridge, Ashat gorge). The sun does not even look at her in winter.
Many have probably heard the term "cluster" in the economic sphere. But not everyone knows and understands its exact meaning. This concept is also applicable to tourism activities.