For many, the magic of the mountains is inexplicable. Every season, numerous groups of tourists walk along mountain paths, overcoming passes and rough rivers. Mountain tourism as a type of sports recreation is becoming more and more popular.
Tourism belongs to the category of mountain tourism, if pedestrian crossings are carried out at an altitude of 2.5 km and above. Despite the mesmerizing beauty of snowy peaks and emerald green alpine meadows, the mountains are dangerous and treacherous.
Therefore, the route requires physical and psychological preparation. This type of vigorous activity is extreme. It is contraindicated for humans:
It is believed that the history of mountain tourism began with the conquest of Mont Blanc in 1786. A hundred years later, the first mountain club appeared in the Russian Empire, in the Caucasus. Its members:
The active spread of mountain tourism began in Soviet times. With the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, there was a massive enthusiasm for students, working youth, representatives of the scientific community for hiking in the mountains. Training camps and clubs were organized, which played a great educational and organizing role. During one summer season, up to a thousand people were trained in mountaineering camps in the North Caucasus.
In those years, the concepts of mountaineering - mountain tourism were considered identical. On the way to the top, a group of climbers has to overcome a lot of technically difficult obstacles formed by the relief and climatic features of the terrain:
Mountain tourism is one of the types of sports tourism. In this concept, many unite different types of outdoor activities: rafting on mountain rivers, rock climbing, ecological tourism - expedition trips to get acquainted with the animal and plant world, study of rocks. However, in the general case, mountain tourism is overcoming routes passing in mountainous terrain at an altitude of more than 3000 m above sea level.
Parameters by which the difficulty of the mountain route is determined - the length of the path in kilometers, the duration in days and the difficulty of the passes. There are 6 categories of difficulty, and within one category the routes can also be very different and require different levels of training.
For hikes of low difficulty, tourists need good physical shape and special hiking clothes, for extreme routes you need professional skills and special equipment.
Many people confuse it with mountaineering. Of course, they have a lot in common, but it cannot be said that they are one and the same. Therefore, let's figure out what are the features of mountain tourism, how it differs from mountaineering and in which countries it is most popular.
The peculiarity of mountain tourism is the movement of a group of people in a mountainous area along a certain, pre-compiled route. Typically, such trips are carried out at significant altitudes above sea level. This is a rather difficult load on all muscle groups, since mountain tourists are not looking for easy ways, and obstacles are encountered regularly.
Not only do you need to be able to overcome passes, traverses of peaks, but also make radial ascents. One of the features of mountain tourism is that long-distance obstacles are not evaluated. Therefore, if you just cross a mountain river, it will not count.
For an uncomplicated hike, the very minimum of special equipment and clothing may come in handy. Literally hiking clothes, special footwear, protective outerwear from the weather, a tent, a sleeping bag.
Technological progress does not bypass active tourism, and hikers can choose clothes in company stores that are indispensable for temporary living in nature: they are breathable, but wind and moisture resistant T-shirts, jackets, hats, gloves. For particularly harsh conditions, you can purchase what is called a phantom mask - or a special hat that covers the entire head and has slits for the eyes, usually used in conjunction with protective climbing goggles. But this is in winter, in summer, ordinary sports sunglasses will do.
Boots are the most important part of a tourist's wardrobe. You should not save on them and purchase shoes from a well-known manufacturer of footwear for active hiking, and when hiking in wet weather, it still does not interfere with using shoe covers - socks made of waterproof material that are worn directly over the shoes. Special equipment should be selected in accordance with the participant's experience, be adequate to the route, its complexity and duration.
An indicative list of required tools, public and private, may be recommended by the tour team leader.
December is the best time to take stock. Last week, within the framework of a conference dedicated to the tourism potential of the Perm Territory, representatives of the administration and tourism business of the region shared the results of their work in 2020. The region has an impressive list of projects and plans for the future.
At the end of last week, representatives of the administration and tourist business of the Perm region gathered journalists and partners in Moscow to talk about what they have achieved in the outgoing year, to announce ambitious plans for the coming years, and also to present the tourist opportunities of the region. After an informative presentation, guests of the event were treated to refreshments, as well as a local drink - Parma balsam.
Opening the event, Deputy Prime Minister of the Perm Territory Alexei Chernikov immediately said that Perm, which stretches along the banks of the Kama River, like the region as a whole, knows how and loves to surprise. There are many places here that have no analogues in Russia.
For example, in the village of Ishimovo, grandmothers prepare patented Ishimov bagels, but very few people know about this yet. And in the Perm Territory, tourists understand that "happiness is just around the corner", get acquainted with the Perm wooden gods, try posikunchik pies, rest in health resorts, visit mysterious caves, endless taiga, go on rafting, hiking, and in winter - to ski resorts.
“Yes, this year it was not possible to fully relax in the Perm Territory, as well as in other Russian regions, for all known reasons. But the restrictions associated with the pandemic will end sooner or later. And we must approach this moment as prepared as possible. We are working to increase the tourist attractiveness of the Perm Territory, develop in all directions, form new routes and whole types of tourism, including industrial. We are actively developing social tourism, children's tourism, active, gastronomic tourism. An agreement was signed on the development of navigation on the Kama River. And to get acquainted with the reserves, according to one of the projects, it will be possible with the help of small aircraft. Let me remind you that in 2023 Perm will celebrate its 300th anniversary, this also stimulates us to active development, - said Alexey Chernikov.
Alexey Chernikov noted that in general, it is tourism that will help restart the economy of the region. Therefore, when planning the development of a particular territory, the region largely proceeds from its tourism opportunities.
“We are comprehensively approaching strengthening the position of tourism in the region. The Ministry of Tourism and Youth Policy will appear in the Perm Territory very soon, ”Mr. Chernikov also said.
Yulia Vetoshkina, Head of the Agency for Tourism and Youth Policy of the Perm Territory, began her speech with statistics of the region's attendance.
Last year, the Perm Territory received 754 thousand tourists. And according to analysts of mobile operators - 2.3 million tourists, that is, three times more than official statistics. From January to September of this year, only 322 thousand tourists visited the region.
“Yes, the decline is quite significant. But on the other hand, in the summer, when the restrictions were lifted, they went to the region en masse for rafting. There were "Moscow traffic jams" on the rivers, recalls Ms. Vetoshkina.
The structure of tourist flow to the Perm region looks like this: 46.5% of the total tourist flow to the region falls on business visits. The second place is for cultural and educational trips (32%), the third place and 13.8% is for health and active tourism.
For the first time the world heard about such a concept as "sports tourism" from the people of the Soviet Union. The USSR is long gone, but the tourist heritage is being successfully developed by modern descendants. The essence of this type of tourism is the organization of hikes of various levels of difficulty, with and without transport, both alone and with groups of like-minded people.
Gradually, people mastered new routes, made safety rules, determined the difficulty levels and requirements for the participants. Experience will allow you to create several classifications of routes according to the level of difficulty, age category, availability of special training. The official regulation of sports tourism began with mountaineering.
Professionals define "sports tourism" as a sport, the competition of which is based on overcoming natural obstacles (water rapids, mountain passes, caves, swampy areas, etc.). They go on trips alone or in a group of 6-10 people.
In order to cope with all the obstacles and difficulties, a person must have special skills for survival in extreme conditions, knowledge of human physiology. The main qualities of an athlete are strength, endurance, agility, courage.
Depending on the obstacles encountered on the route, it is customary to distinguish the following types of sports tourism:
There are strict rules for conducting hikes, which are constantly being improved and refined by experienced specialists. The essence of the rules is to perform a certain sequence of actions aimed at reducing the risk of injury, accidents, and death. Before any group goes on a hike, its leader must provide a route map for assessment by a special qualification commission. If the route meets all safety requirements, then it is approved. A copy of it is kept throughout the entire time the group travels with the rescue squad.
Equestrian tourism is an international sport and active recreation. Equestrian tourism according to international rules includes five disciplines: competitions in equestrian tourism technique in sledges Int. T. ... ... in sledges - they are also held in the sport "Sports Tourism". It includes two distances: a long distance with orienteering and speed control and a short distance working dressage competition Working equitation - a competition related to riding skills associated with working with cattle, driving and sorting them. Aims to preserve the national schools of work with cattle and horses.
Active tourism - tourism using active types of travel - on foot, skiing, cycling, horseback riding. It is predominantly developed in territories that have preserved their unique landscapes. These include, first of all, Russia, which has at the same time lowland plains, marsh, steppe landscapes, as well as mountain and desert landscapes.
Tourism classified as active according to the mode of movement may also have a sporting purpose - overcoming natural obstacles, such as climbing mountains. Communities that use the natural environment for personal self-improvement created a new international sport in the 20th century - sports tourism.
Forms of active tourism: hike, gathering of tourists, competitions of amateur sports tourism, commercial tour.
The main point of such a division of types of tourism is to determine the types of movement and the intensity of human activity in the process of tourism. Active types of tourism include types of recreation and travel, entertainment, sports that require significant physical exertion and are not available to all categories of tourists. Extreme tourism stands out even more in this sense. Various adventure tours and sports tourism are considered active.
In amateur travel, the main task of an active tourist trip is that people choose their own travel goals. These are objects of nature that they would like to see, laying a route that ensures the rational overcoming of obstacles. The result is the achievement of the selected goals. Such a tourist event is not a service.
A trip organized with the help of professional guides is called a tour. They formulate the proposed purpose of travel, with which the participants taking part in the tour agree when choosing a service provider.
The organizational unit of active tourism is a tourist club - an amateur tourist association, as well as tourist circles of institutions for additional education of children - children's and youth centers, clubs, stations for young tourists, clubs at the place of residence.
Promotion of travel services on the Internet based on the analysis of competitors and demand studies. Methods of promoting tourism services and the use of effective marketing tools.