Mountain tourism, features and organization

Types and features of extreme tourism

Sports tourism is a collective discipline that combines a wide variety of types of recreation and physical activity of a person. Anyone who is not used to sitting still and strives to get new impressions, combining them with physical activity, will be able to choose for himself the type of tourism that he likes best. You can go hiking, rafting, cycling or skiing in a company, overcoming various obstacles. And you can go in for tourism professionally and participate in competitions, implying the passage of routes of various categories of complexity with the receipt of sports categories. Distances for competitions are laid both in a natural environment and on an artificially created landscape. In any case, the task of the athlete is one - to demonstrate the strength of the spirit, overcoming obstacles.

The concept of tourism appeared in the era of Peter I. While in Germany, the emperor climbed Mount Brocken and, standing on its top, experienced such an amazing feeling that he began to encourage tourism in every possible way upon returning home. However, the nobility showed little interest in the new type of physical activity - they were more attracted to resorts and entertainment.

Interest in the discipline arose years later among scientists. They organized hikes and expeditions to study nature, plants and animals.

The era of mass recognition of sports tourism can be considered the period of existence of the USSR. Active youth more and more often rushed to hiking, went to the mountains. The state provided comprehensive support for sports and an active lifestyle. Competitions were held, the rules for conducting tourist trips were approved. In 1949, sports tourism was included in the Unified All-Union Sports Classification.

Professional sports tourism implies competitions with the assignment of qualification categories and the title of Master of Sports. To do this, you need to complete a series of hikes with a certain level of difficulty of the route, as well as have experience in managing a tourist group.

There are 5 categories of difficulty in total, of which 4 and 5 require a certain level of physical and technical training.

Sports tourism is developing with the assistance of various clubs and societies, as well as physical education teams. They help organize trips. The tourist group on the route usually has 6 to 10 participants. They must be in good physical shape and have special technical knowledge and skills. They are required to understand how to act in any unforeseen situation, because travelers can be out of civilization for a long time.

A sports trip necessarily involves overcoming obstacles of various types, which depends on the type of tourism. So, in ski tourism, mountain peaks and passes become obstacles, in water tourism, river rapids. All existing natural obstacles are classified, which makes it possible to assess the complexity of a particular route. The teams that have completed the most successful hikes represent the country at national and world championships.

  • Ski tourism. It is similar to walking, but the group moves on skis in snow and ice conditions, and for routes of great difficulty - in mountains and harsh climates.

  • Mountain tourism - climbing to the peaks with overcoming passes and traverses of mountain ranges.

  • Water tourism - is a descent along the rivers on special floating facilities. Usually routes are laid along mountain rivers, where rapids and current features become the main obstacles.

  • Speleotourism - trekking to underground caves, where the group overcomes obstacles based on the structure and relief of the cave.

Acclimatization: how to deal with it quickly


Active leisure activities are gaining increasing popularity among ordinary tourists. Diving has become especially popular, one of the most exciting and extreme types. Parachutists and skiers have to make room - the number of divers around the world is growing rapidly. Paying attention to the numbers, it becomes clear: the spread of diving is comparable only to the epidemic. There are nearly 20,000,000 certified recreational divers in the world today, up from several hundred 40 years ago. Also, now all over the world parachute jumping is very popular. They began to jump with a parachute more than half a century ago, but it turned into a mass character only 15 years ago. There are now many options for skydiving. This is both skysurfing and group acrobatics, but BASE jumping is gaining more and more popularity. It is not only a thrill, but also a magnificent sight. Many people specially come to various competitions to watch people jump from skyscrapers, television towers, bridges, rocks. If someone doesn't like diving or jumping from great heights, then you can try windsurfing, also a popular form of recreation. But here it is worth considering that this pleasure is associated with constant falls into the water, and the real possibility of drowning in sea waves, as well as inevitable calluses on the hands. But testing yourself in rafting on rough mountain rivers will definitely be remembered for a long time.

In general, extreme tourism is one of the most promising types of tourism, which attracts more and more people. New places for active recreation appear, both artificial ones, for example, ski resorts, as well as places created by nature that people did not know about before, for example, caves. And the fact that this type of tourism is actively developing can be seen at least from the fact that all new types of it appear


Extreme tourism is one of the most promising types of tourism, which attracts more and more people.

Active include various adventure tours, adventure travel, visits to exotic places, volcanoes, islands, waterfalls, and the like. Usually this is an unconventional tour to exotic and ecologically clean natural reservations, associated with unusual travel, unconventional means of transportation. In some cases, such a tour is associated with risk and serious physical exertion, requires courage and skills. Popular recreation at ski resorts - participation requires a certain physical fitness and skill of the participants. Such tourism is close to sports tourism, but the routes are better prepared and the conditions are much more comfortable, the risk is minimized due to the provision of guides, intermediate camps, and tourist equipment.

The peculiarity of extreme tourism is its sports character and participation of the youth age group in it

Ski tourism is perhaps the most developed of all types of extreme tourism. We have ski resorts of a fairly high standard. And although they are significantly inferior to their counterparts, for example, in European countries, our tourists with an average income are happy to visit resorts.

Snow blindness can occur while in the highlands. Snow blindness occurs as a result of sunburn of the mucous membrane of the eye and retina caused by bright sunlight that is reflected by snow, ice, or the surface of the water.

With snow blinding, there is a strong lacrimation, photophobia, redness of the eyes. In severe cases, temporary loss of vision is possible.

With the development of symptoms, a dark eye patch, cold compresses, eye rinsing with 2-4% boric acid solution is necessary. If vision is not restored, the patient should be evacuated to the hospital.

The variety of types of extreme tourism in our time is simply amazing. Everyone comes up with something especially new, just to attract tourists and just thrill-seekers. It seems that a person is simply competing with nature: he overcomes mountain rivers, visits dangerous caves, conquered the waters of the oceans and seas, learns about the sky with the help of various devices, and can take off for several days into space. And most importantly, all this is combined into only one desire: incredible pleasure.

A process like acclimatization makes people feel unpleasant painful sensations due to the abrupt change in geographic conditions. Often it becomes the cause of spoiled rest, so it is important to know the methods of its prevention. Acclimatization often causes spoiled rest. Duration and stages of manifestation The process of acclimatization has several stages. They are singled out,

Active recreation has taken an important place in the tourism sector in recent years. Extreme tourism is gradually replacing boring beach holidays and endless excursions. Travel agencies offer a huge selection of extreme tours to different countries.

Extreme tours are usually chosen by young people who are somehow connected with sports. Extreme types of recreation require good health, willpower, passion, and courage. Some tourists prefer a certain type of extreme tourism, others test themselves in different extreme types of recreation. All types of extreme tourism can be divided into:

This is a great option for beach lovers. These include diving, wakeboarding, windsurfing, kayaking, rafting. Opportunities for this type of recreation are available at any seaside resort. Many resorts offer training in some kind of extreme water sports. For example, diving schools offer training from scratch. This view is available for both experienced diving enthusiasts and beginners.

Parachuting, skysurfing, hang gliding, hot air ballooning can be attributed to the aerial view. Air tourism can be quite dangerous, so extreme air tourism is suitable only for trained people. The only exceptions are hot air ballooning and hang gliding. Here tourists are usually accompanied by experienced instructors.

Mountain biking, speleology, mountaineering, alpine skiing and snowboarding can be distinguished among land and mountain types of extreme tourism. Almost all types of this type of tourism are associated with mountain climbing. It can be difficult for an untrained person to spend even a few hours in the mountains. The main advantage of this species is that it is possible at any time of the year.

This type of extreme tourism is quite young, and is just beginning its journey in the tourist direction. These include space tourism, kitesurfing, jailoo tourism. It also includes jungle walks, trips to dangerous places (for example, a walk through Chernobyl). The popularity of exotic extreme tourism is growing every day. However, it is worth remembering that the cost of such unusual entertainment is quite high.

Extreme recreation is not available to everyone. Some tourists cannot afford extreme tourism due to health conditions, or age restrictions. Thus, one of the main features of extreme recreation is certain restrictions. But there are a number of other features:

• Injury hazard. All extreme types of tourism are associated with danger. Injuries can be obtained from a fall, damage to inventory, negligence. Most of the injuries are suffered by tourists who are not well prepared physically and psychologically. Engaging in extreme sports should start with the least traumatic types, gradually gaining experience and skills. • High cost. Extreme tourism is a rather expensive type of recreation. The high cost can be attributed to expensive equipment and instructor costs. Many extreme lovers prefer to purchase their own equipment. However, every year the need for extreme recreation is growing, and tourists are trying new types of extreme recreation, which requires new costs. • Difficult organization. You can organize an extreme tour yourself, or you can purchase it from a travel agency. It should be noted that not all agencies specialize in the sale of extreme tours. Not always a tourist can find exactly what he wants. It is also not easy to organize an extreme vacation on your own. There are a huge number of nuances that should be taken into account when preparing: • Dependence on the weather. Weather conditions play an important role in organizing extreme tours. For example, windsurfing is not possible without wind, and diving requires calm, hot weather. Each type of extreme recreation has its own characteristics and requires certain weather conditions.

Extreme tourism is an interesting and unusual type of recreation. But before you start practicing extreme sports, you should carefully study all the features of this type of tourism.

One of the trends of the last decade is the course towards a healthy lifestyle. More and more people understand the need for proper nutrition, rejection of unhealthy substances, crawling playing sports. People of different ages choose active recreation instead of idle lying in front of the TV or on the beach for vacation or weekends. There is a wide variety of ways you can spend your time active, but at the same time relax. In some cases, you don't even have to spend money.

When spending time actively, the main thing is not to overdo it. Indeed, active rest is understood as an activity that will be associated with physical activity, but at the same time will not cause fatigue in the body. How can you relax if you engage in physical activity? The answer is simple: it's all about positive emotions that arise during active rest. It is due to this that the work of all systems and organs in the body improves.


There are many types of physical activity that you can use to relax your mind and body. The most popular is sports tourism. There are different ways to navigate the route

  • By car;
  • By horse;
  • By motorcycle;
  • On foot;
  • Kayaking;
  • Skiing and more.

This also includes mountaineering or just short hikes in the mountains.

On the beach, you can also find a lot of options for how to spend time with benefit. Normal swimming in seawater is active recreation. You can diversify your time on the beach with:

  • Diving - scuba diving at shallow depths for the untrained or deep dives for those with special skills. Even a shallow dive can cause a storm of positive emotions, and if you also manage to see the beauty of the underwater world, then it is doubly excellent.
  • Surfing - beginners will not be able to catch a wave without training. But after you master these skills, emotions will be overflowing.
  • Water skiing - skiing on plastic skis behind a boat. It takes a little time to adjust, but the result is worth it.

Activities include hunting and fishing. If you combine these activities with traveling around the country, you will get positive emotions from visiting new places and your favorite pastime. There are many tours for fishermen to the Karelian forests, Lake Baikal, bird hunting in the taiga, bear hunting among the hills of Kamchatka.

For fans of adrenaline rush in large doses, extreme entertainment is provided. This sport is suitable for people who do not have diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems of the body. The extreme type of tourism includes:

  • Paragliding;
  • Parachuting;
  • Jeeping;
  • Jumping;

A quieter but more active holiday is hiking. Such walks are popular in the resorts of Crimea. There are organized routes of varying difficulty and duration in the mountains. You go, enjoy the nature, the views of the sea and mountains. You can take Nordic walking sticks on the road to make it easier to climb the mountain.

In winter, skiing and snowboarding are most popular, and children of all ages will appreciate tubing from the mountain. Such a hobby does not even cost money, almost everyone has skis and sledges. You just need to wait for a stable snow cover to fall.

The country has great travel opportunities. This is facilitated by a variety of natural conditions. Tourism today has become one of the most popular types of recreation. The attractiveness of such a pastime is the ability to combine entertainment and educational components. In addition, this leisure contributes to active muscle development, hardening and improvement of people of any age.

A short-term or long-term trip (travel) to a place or country other than the territory of permanent residence for a period of more than a day (up to two to three months) within 1 year, or with an overnight stay (more than one) is called tourism. It can be: • entertaining; • wellness; • sports; • guest; • religious; • business; • for recreation; • educational and others.

A person or group of people who travels like this is called a tourist.

The main type of tourism is hiking. This is the movement of a team of like-minded people or one person along a given route within an agreed period of time. Such a trip can have a sports, educational, recreational or other purpose. Achievement of the end point depends on the pre-campaign preparation, technical and tactical skill and safety at each stage.

Hiking is a promising type of tourism that can meet the needs of people seeking an active lifestyle.

Massive forms of tourism activities are:

• pedestrian; • ski; • mountain; • water; • speleological; • combined.

Mountain nature differs from flat one. The originality of the mountains is in their pronounced vertical climatic zonation, characterized by the mismatch of signs for the summer season, therefore, travelers will find a variety of unique impressions.

The main obstacle to movement in the highlands is bad weather and variability of the relief. They are also the reason for the dangerous phenomena for tourists. Residents who have not previously climbed the mountains require a certain adaptation or acclimatization in new conditions. First of all, the body adapts to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the air. This will take about 5 days. During this time, a feeling of fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite and a feeling of lack of sleep, which disappears after sleep and rest, rolls over the participants of the trip.

If unpleasant manifestations persist, and with a further rise in altitude, pain in the head, nausea (up to vomiting) or chills appear, then this means too quickly overcoming the distance in height, and the occurrence of such symptoms is associated with the manifestation of altitude sickness ... A person should return several hundred meters - below the level of unpleasant sensations. In this case, the unpleasant phenomena go away. The climb can be resumed after 24 hours.

The acclimatization process is better and faster if the person is active. Therefore, the feeling of the first high-altitude malaise is not a reason to stop moving, on the contrary, you should convince yourself to continue the ascent, and actively participate in the life of the camp at a halt. If altitude sickness manifests itself too strongly, then the tourist is allowed to rest passively. He was prescribed warm sweet tea, sour juice, vitamin C, and for a headache, taking citramone or aeron.

Hiking is a set of unique factors capable of comprehensively training the human body. In the mountainous environment, protective functions are activated, and the climber mobilizes his own hidden reserves. It is not surprising that upon returning to the plain, the tourist feels composure and lightness for a long time.

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