From the point of view of demand, there are three types of tourism: domestic, inbound and outbound. Tourism categories include international and national tourism, as well as tourism within the country (Fig. 3.). Overnight visitors are considered tourists, and daytime visitors are sightseers. Tourists who have arrived in the country on a cruise ship also act as sightseers, if they do not use local accommodation facilities for spending the night.
Fig. 3.. Types and categories of tourism
What parameters characterize the structure of tourist demand? Three groups of criteria can be distinguished: 1) geographical; 2) socio-demographic; 3) psychological and behavioral. Let's consider each of them in more detail. Segmentation by geographic parameters involves the division of demand into different geographic units: - domestic, inbound and outbound tourism, depending on the country of residence of the tourist; - tourism to parts of the world, countries, regions, cantons, cities, depending on the geographical purpose of the tourist trip.
Here is an approximate list of socio-demographic and psychological-behavioral criteria for segmentation of tourist demand.
Socio-demographic criteria (characteristics) of the tourist: - age; - gender; - profession; - the profession of the head of the family; - the size of the settlement where the tourist resides; '' the number of family members accompanying the tourist; type of family; ; nationality; - religious beliefs; - the presence or absence of personal vehicles in the family; - family income; - income per family member. Psychological and behavioral criteria (characteristics) of tourist behavior: the motive of the trip; psychological portrait of a tourist; seasonality; trip organization (tour operator); form of travel; - the vehicles used; - used accommodation facilities; - the distance of the trip; - the duration of the trip; - sources of funding for the trip; consultants and mediators in making a decision on the commission of a tourist trip.
Let's give examples of demand segmentation according to some of the above criteria. By age, there are, for example, youth tourism and tourism "seniors"; the demand for tourist services has its own characteristics on the part of age groups from 30 to 45 years old, from 45 to 55 years old, etc. Women's tourism, professional specialized tourism (for example, tours for bank employees, agricultural workers, various industries, etc.) are gaining in importance. Depending on the type of family, the demand is divided into family tourism with and without children, single tourism, tourism for families of 5 or more people, etc. Separate segments are formed by religious and ethnic tourism, expensive exclusive and cheap tourist trips.
The demand for tourist services has undergone significant changes over the past 30 years, and at the present stage, the trends in demand are as follows: - the transition from active to passive recreation; - specialization and individualization in demand; - expansion of outbound tourism; - greening consumer thinking; - splitting of the main vacation; - intensification of tourist recreation.
Since 1950, international tourism has shown itself to be a "healthy" and reliable type of economy in spite of many negative factors, such as political and economic instability in many parts of the world, increased terrorism, etc. As a rule, during an economic downturn, demand either remained unchanged, or (soon after the "recovery" of the economy) returned to its previous level, but this process did not spread evenly among all tourist centers. Many of them disappeared due to the fact that they became unfashionable or could not provide sufficient safety for tourists.
Early 1980s. was marked by a recession in the world economy, which caused a reduction in international travel until 1984.This and the next (1985) year were record-breaking successful for European tourist centers, but the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the USSR in 1986, as well as terrorist acts by Libyan extremists , the weakening of the US dollar in comparison with the currencies of other countries led to a decrease in tourist flows in the world.
In the second half of the 1980s. the situation returned to normal. During this period, some countries of the Pacific Rim (Australia, Hong Kong, Thailand and China), as well as European countries (Portugal and Turkey) experienced rapid growth, while others, on the contrary, recession (for example, Lebanon, which was once prosperous and famous for its tourism industry).
The nineties also began unfavorably for the development of international tourism: the main role was played by the war in Iraq, called "Desert Storm". Shortly after the outbreak of the war, travel to the region, as well as to the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa, was halted, thereby slowing the growth of international tourism. The subsequent economic downturn that swept through many industrialized countries further exacerbated the situation.
WTO statistics show that over 20 years the number of international tourists has almost tripled, from 160 million in 1970 to 460 million in 1990. However, in 1991, international tourism suffered a significant setback, and the rise in arrivals tourists accounted for only 1.5%. Another rise was observed in 1992, when the growth of arrivals was 8%. The total number of arrivals of tourists this year amounted to 504 million people, in 1993 518 million, and in 1994 - 546 million people.
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