Nesterova I. Domestic tourism//Encyclopedia of the Nesterovs
Russia is the country with the largest territory, with a huge number of reserves, unique historical sites and simply secluded corners with wonderful nature. It would seem that domestic tourism in Russia should flourish, but so far Russians prefer to relax abroad.
In recent years, the state has begun to pay more attention to domestic tourism. Domestic tourism is one of the most promising areas for the development of the Russian economy. However, the imperfection of the infrastructure, the negligent attitude of the tourism business towards the holidaymakers led to a lower growth rate of domestic tourism compared to forecasts. Domestic tourism has taken root as a legal concept. Thus, the Federal Law "On the Basics of Tourist Activity in the Russian Federation" No. 132 establishes the following interpretation of the term:
At the same time V. Kvartalnov interprets domestic tourism as a temporary departure of citizens of a particular country from a permanent place of residence within the national borders of the same country for recreation, satisfying cognitive interests, playing sports and for other tourist purposes.
Domestic tourism requires attention from the state, since at the moment there are many problems that hinder the development of the tourism industry as a whole. Domestic tourism operates within the framework of the interaction of three key parties:
Domestic tourism implies the interest of citizens in the country's recreational resources, in cultural and historical monuments. It emphasizes the level of relationship between the state and citizens. The state's concern for tourism should be accompanied by the conscientiousness of business in the service sector, respect between people and the desire not just to cash in or save on each other as a one-time option, but to attract tourists on an ongoing basis.
After the dollar soared in 2014, Russians turned their eyes to the tourist beauty of Russia. In 2014, according to the Federal Tourism Agency, 41.5 million Russians traveled across Russia. Problems with Turkey and the terrorist attack on the Sinai closed the way for Russian tourists to the usual Turkey and Egypt. In 2015, there was an increase in domestic tourism. At the end of the summer of 2015, the demand for domestic tourism in Russia increased by 30%. Rosturizm notes that this is not due to an increase in the quality of service in the Russian Federation, but to a depreciation of the ruble and a decrease in household income. In the tourism industry, there has been a tendency towards a decrease in the purchase of package tours from tour operators. The percentage of Russian citizens who prefer to travel on their own is growing.
Demand for domestic travel packages continued to grow in 2017 and 2018. However, the growth rate of domestic tourism is far from planned. In addition to the arbitrariness of officials, the slowly growing quality of tourist services, there is the problem of negative propaganda. The fact is that those who make money on outbound tourism in the Russian Federation do not intend to lose money. At present, a negative attitude towards the tourist attractions of our Motherland is actively fueled. The wave of negativity on the Internet, both fictional and real, is spurred on by the greed of hoteliers and restaurateurs, the desire to "make money quickly."
In addition, the dynamically developing Crimea within Russia is like a bone in the throat of especially "patriotic" Ukrainian citizens. Hence the streams of misinformation and negativity.
Order of the Government of the Russian Federation N 2129-r dated 20.9.019
III. Tourism Development Tools
Modern trends in the development of domestic and inbound tourism determine the need to increase the competitiveness of the tourism product offered in the domestic and international tourism markets, as well as the importance of creating the most favorable conditions for attracting investment.
In order to achieve the goals of the Strategy, it is necessary to identify the potential for a tourism product to meet the expectations of target audiences, select areas that make the greatest contribution to the achievement of target indicators, identify priority territories, the development of which is inextricably linked with the tourism product, and create conditions for increasing interest business in the systematic development of tourism.
On the one hand, it is necessary to focus efforts, resources and measures of state support on the development of priority tourist areas, increasing their investment attractiveness and improving the conditions for investing in the tourist business, on the other hand, to introduce an integrated approach to planning the development of such territories through the formation of plans for the development of tourist areas, coordinated with the relevant documents of strategic and territorial planning, sectoral and territorial programs of socio-economic development.
It is proposed to increase investment attractiveness by introducing a special regime for the development of territories, tax incentives, a program of concessional loan financing for the construction and modernization of collective accommodation facilities and other tourist infrastructure facilities, state support for marketing and promotion of tourist products, removing administrative and legislative restrictions, as well as state support for the development of the supporting infrastructure for tourism.
A competitive tourism product (international, national, regional and local) is created with the aim of maximizing the positive tourist experience. An integrated approach to the development of a tourist product should be based on the positive experience of the tourist, not only during the holiday, but also throughout the journey, starting from the idea of making a trip and ending with reviews upon returning home. The competitiveness of a tourist product is formed through the disclosure of the potential of tourist resources and is determined by the quality and availability of transport infrastructure, the quality of the supporting infrastructure, the state and cost of using the tourist infrastructure, the quality of service and the cost of service, as well as the recognizability and attractiveness of the country's brand and individual tourist destinations.
The basis for increasing the competitiveness of the tourist product of the Russian Federation is the development of brand recognition and attractiveness, facilitation of the visa regime, improving the quality of tourist services and increasing their availability for domestic and inbound tourists. Improving the quality of the tourism product will be facilitated by the modernization and development of tourism infrastructure, urban and rural environment, improving the quality of training personnel working in the tourism industry, comprehensive security of tourism activities, creating a comfortable business environment, including for small and medium-sized businesses, coordination of representatives business and regions for joint planning of the development of tourist territories, monitoring the quality of the tourist product and disseminating best practices and service standards, as well as the implementation of measures to develop competition in the market for the provision of tourist services in the Russian Federation. The main directions of increasing the availability of these services will be the development of transport infrastructure and a system of passenger transportation in the direction of tourist areas, including multimodal transportation, digital platforms for the convenience of tourists when planning a trip, providing a wide range of tourist services.
Photo: Igor Samokhvalov/PG
The government instructed Rosturizm to develop a new sectoral law within a year, the need for which has been discussed for several years. The current rules for the tourist market were adopted in 1996 and are focused primarily on protecting Russian travelers abroad. Now the country faces another task - to develop domestic resorts.
The new law should take into account the needs of society, business and regions, says the head of the State Duma Committee on Physical Culture, Sports, Tourism and Youth Affairs Boris Paikin. “It should focus on the development of domestic and inbound tourism, - said the deputy. “These two areas will allow not only to radically improve the quality and availability of tourist services in our country, but will also have a multiplier effect for the development of the regional economy and the creation of new jobs.”
State Duma Deputy Speaker Irina Yarovaya also spoke about the fact that the current law is "hopelessly outdated" at an online conference in RIA Novosti in the summer of 2020. The document does not even contain such concepts as "domestic tourism" and "tourism cluster". As Yarovaya emphasized, the pandemic has created new opportunities, including for the active development of travel in Russia. “We have a unique country, very interesting balneological zones, recreational, which must be formalized in legal status, the register of which must be open,” said the vice speaker.
According to the Association of Tour Operators of Russia, in 2020 among the most popular holiday destinations for Russians, in addition to the Black Sea coast, were the Caucasian Mineral Waters, Baikal, Altai and Khakassia. At the same time, the regions were not quite ready for a large influx of tourists: there were not enough parking lots, hotels and recreation centers, canteens and cafes.
Head of the Federation Council Committee on Social Policy Inna Svyatenko is sure that it is important to provide tourist facilities with infrastructure, service, and good advertising. “The law should take into account the norms on regulating the activities of hoteliers and guides-translators and regulate the work of tourist information platforms that already exist,” the senator explained to Parlamentskaya Gazeta.
According to the plan of legislative activity, published on the government website, Rostourism and other interested departments will be engaged in the development of the bill. The concept of the document will be drawn up by a working group that has yet to be created.
The closure of the borders of the pandemic has given a powerful impetus to the development of domestic tourism. At the same time, many in the retail market believe that this is a temporary phenomenon, and after the opening of the borders, everything will return to normal. Others - that "the world will never be the same again", as well as the preferences of tourists. And if you miss the Russian segment now, the travel industry risks being left without it forever. In the article we will figure out which of these points of view is more justified, and at the same time we will dispel some stereotypes about Russian tourism.
A discussion on this topic has recently flared up on the Facebook page of the CEO of the media holding Profi. ravel by Alexei Vengin, who wrote that in the long term, no one has done more for domestic tourism than Covid. “After three months of forced confinement, the development of tourism within the country cannot be stopped,” he said.
Skeptics in the comments to his post argue that this is clearly not enough for the full development of domestic tourism. Their main counterargument is that tourists who are accustomed to vacationing abroad will not travel to Russia. According to Mikhail Lapshin, the head of YouHotel Digital Concierge, the main obstacles here are undeveloped infrastructure and, at the same time, high prices. “Until there are serious investors willing to play for a long time, there will be no serious domestic tourism…. Those who have rested at least once in Turkey will not be able to get high on the Black Sea coast, ”he writes.
“I personally have no hopes for a beach vacation in Russia. We passed when the course grew, and the tourists went to the Krasnodar Territory and Crimea. Returning home, they said that they would rather miss a year, but save up for abroad. The Russian service does not suit them, and if it does, it is clearly not for that kind of money, "adds Andrey Burmitsky, head of Your Tourist House company.
However, it is in this approach that the main mistake can be hidden: most representatives of the retail market do not even consider any destinations for recreation, except for Sochi and Crimea. All the rest in their eyes do not fall into the category of mass, which means that they are not interesting a priori.
Experts believe that such a stereotype can result in a significant loss of income for them. Skift conducted a study in the United States and found that 57% of Americans will only travel domestically this year. In China, the situation is similar - slightly more than half of tourists (55%) go on a trip, and only 14% of them go abroad. According to a study by the analytical company Bernstein, Russia is among the world leaders in terms of domestic tourism potential, it is undervalued by more than 20 billion.
For the situation to begin to change, it is necessary to stop looking for an alternative to the Turkish product in Russia. Our country can offer both mountain and outdoor activities. The main thing is to abandon the stereotype ourselves that for health it is worth going only to the sea. And then put this thought into the tourist's head. After all, tourism is perhaps one of the few markets where supply, not demand, rules the ball. Closed borders have already stimulated the process of import substitution in tourism - today in Russia they are replacing foreign ones, and wellness is being taken over by sanatoriums. Huge tourist potential is hidden in such regions as Buryatia, Altai, Khakassia. Due to the fact that charters have made rest there more accessible, part of the audience will come to the conclusion that the sea can sometimes be replaced (or supplemented) with rest by the lake - recovery there will be no worse. Whether the agents will receive this audience depends on themselves.
Several users in the comments pointed out the high cost of vacations in Russia. They also stressed that the lack of competition and the influx of tourists this year will only grow. At the same time, a number of experts believe that the joint efforts of the state and mass tour operators can make rest in Russia more affordable than a foreign one. Only through subsidies and the correct position of the authorities can a package tour be made twice as cheap as self-assembly.
Agents are divided on this score. claims that on Lake Baikal or in Khakassia, even if prices are reduced by 50%, tourists will remain dissatisfied with the quality of service and the level of accommodation facilities, that the impression of what they see will be spoiled by mountains of garbage and huge mosquitoes. Others are sure that after a long time in quarantine, tourists are ready to go anywhere, and the travel agent only needs to find a suitable option for them. And as soon as the flow to the regions increases significantly, investors will appear ready to build decent hotels and restaurants.
1. ... International and domestic tourism in the conditions of market relations. Development trends
It should be remembered that tourism not only has an important social focus, but is also an important economic category.
The economic essence of tourism lies in the fact that it is the sale of a certain product. In this case, a product is a tour or a set of services (accommodation, catering, transportation, various household services, excursions, etc.), which are combined on the basis of the main purpose of the trip. In addition to the services purchased in the complex or separately, tourists can also purchase various tourist goods (maps, guidebooks, phrasebooks, souvenirs, postcards, etc.). The totality of all services and goods for tourism purposes forms a tourism product.
The economic essence of tourism lies in the sale of a tourist product and receiving benefits from tourist activities for the economy of a country or a separate region. The main benefits are:
1) increasing local income;
2) creating a large number of new jobs;
3) increase in foreign exchange earnings;
4) development of industries related to the production of tourism services.
According to the nature of the movement of tourists relative to their place of permanent residence, three types of tourism can be distinguished: inbound, outbound and domestic.
Inbound tourism is a tourist activity and service of foreign tourists on the territory of their country.
According to Art. 1 of the Federal Law "On the Basics of Tourist Activity in the Russian Federation" inbound tourism is tourism within the Russian Federation of persons not permanently residing in Russia.
Outbound tourism is a tourist activity and service of tourists of one's own country in the territory of another country. This is tourism of persons permanently residing in the Russian Federation to another country.
If you crave extreme sensations and like active rest, then a volcano walk is the best travel idea! A personal guide will help you to do it, because climbing the volcano is fraught with danger. Etna, Strombole, Piku, Iceland's numerous volcanoes and the hills of Kamchatka: would you like to know more about them?
Sports tourism is a way of developing physical and mental health. Sports tourism is understood as an intensive course, during which the participant assimilates a lot of useful information and forms dozens of skills.