Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin

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Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin was born on August 26, 1870 in a poor noble family. He graduated from the Alexander Military School in Moscow and in 1890-1894 served in a regiment located in the Podolsk province, on the borders of the Russian Empire. After retirement, he devoted himself entirely to literature. Literary success came to Kuprin after the appearance of the story Moloch in 1896. The publication of the poetic story Olesya (1898) made Kuprin's name known to all reading Russia. His fame was strengthened by the first volume of the Tales (1903) and especially the story The Duel (1905).

After the outbreak of the First World War, Kuprin opened a military hospital in his home. In November 1914 he was mobilized into the army and sent to Finland as an infantry company commander. Demobilized in July 1915 for health reasons. The writer took the abdication of Nicholas II with enthusiasm. Kuprin became the editor of the newspapers Svobodnaya Rossiya, Volnost, Petrogradskiy Listok, and sympathized with the Socialist-Revolutionaries. Kuprin's attitude to the Bolshevik coup was ambivalent and contradictory, but he tried to cooperate with the new government - he discussed with Lenin a project to publish a newspaper for the peasants, which was never implemented.

On October 16, 1919, Gatchina was occupied by Yudenich's troops advancing on Petrograd. Kuprin entered the rank of lieutenant in the North-Western Army, was appointed editor of the army newspaper "Prinevsky Krai", which was headed by General P. N. Krasnov. On November 3, Gatchina was liberated. Together with the retreating White Guards, Kuprin left his homeland.

Helsinki

In November 1919, Alexander Kuprin and his family ended up in Revel. Then, having received a Finnish visa, the Kuprins moved to Helsinki. Finland, which had recently been Russian, had already become a foreign country, and the difference between the past and the present was striking.

“In Helsinki, as usual, we stayed at the Fenia Hotel - the best one, and only going up its marble stairs, seeing the footmen and flirty maids in starched aprons, did we realize how much we were torn off and unsightly. And in general, our funds did not allow us to live in such a hotel, ”the writer's daughter, Ksenia Kuprina, recalled in her book“ Kuprin is my father ”.

Kuprin active tourism

“Geniuses and villains. Alexander Kuprin "

Alexander Kuprin. "Garnet Bracelet"/"Bead Game" with Igor Volgin/TV Channel Culture

Alexander Kuprin - biography

Alexander Kuprin is a well-known Russian writer, translator. Author of the works "Garnet Bracelet", "Duel", "Pit" and many others.

Alexander Kuprin lived a rich life. In his biography, joyful and tragic events, ups and disappointments miraculously intertwined, you can safely shoot an adventure movie about him. Kuprin became one of the most colorful personalities in Russian literature. Disappointed in the power of the Bolsheviks, he left his homeland for a long time, but being a truly Russian person, he nevertheless returned. He left behind a great creative legacy, his works are alive and will live for a long time, finding responses in the hearts of new generations of readers.

Childhood

Alexander Kuprin was born on September 7, 1870 in the small district town of Narovchat near Penza, and became the sixth child in the family of Ivan Kuprin, a hereditary nobleman, a minor official and Lyubov Kulunchakova, who belonged to an impoverished Tatar princely family. Three children died before they even lived two years. When Sasha was one year old, the father of the family died from the plague epidemic, and Lyubov Alekseevna was left without a livelihood with three children. In 1874, the woman decided to leave for Moscow. There she managed to find two daughters in state boarding houses, and she and her son settled in the Widow's House, where she finally secured a place for herself.

At the age of six, the boy began his studies at the Moscow Razumovsky boarding school, which was considered an orphanage. Four years later, Sasha continued his education at the Second Moscow Cadet Corps, after graduating from which he became a cadet at the Alexander Military School. Kuprin left its walls as a second lieutenant, and for four years served in the Dnieper infantry regiment.

Alexander Kuprin retired at the age of 24. First, he settled in Kiev, then in Odessa, then his path lies in Sevastopol. He could not stop, changing city after city, because he did not own a single civilian specialty. Only thanks to Ivan Bunin, the young man finds a permanent place - in the St. Petersburg edition of the "Journal for Everyone". Some time will pass, and the writer will move to Gatchina, in the First World War he will open a military hospital and will support it at his own expense.

Kuprin accepted the abdication of the throne of Emperor Nicholas II with great enthusiasm. After the Bolsheviks came to power, the writer turned to the leader - Vladimir Lenin and proposed to establish a special edition for rural residents, "Earth". However, soon enough he was disappointed with the new government, he realized that a dictatorship was beginning in the country.

It was Alexander Kuprin who was the author of the derogatory name of the USSR - "Sovdepia", which has become firmly embedded in the jargon.

During the civil war, the writer voluntarily left for the White Army. After she was defeated, he emigrated from the country. Initially, Kuprin lived in Finland, then moved to France.

short biography

Alexander Ivanovich Kuprin is a talented Russian writer, for whom life and work were inseparable. The author's works were often disliked by the current government, but they received the love of the people. Especially worth noting are his works such as "Olesya", "Pomegranate Bracelet" and "Duel", which were included in the golden fund of Russian classics. Kuprin chose for himself a realistic direction in literature as a way to convey the truth to people.

The future famous writer was born on August 26 (according to the new style on September 7), 1870 in the city of Narovchat, which belonged to the Penza province.

House in Narovchat, where Kuprin was born

Father - Ivan Ivanovich Kuprin. Despite his noble origins, he served as a minor official.

Mother - Lyubov Alekseevna Kuprina. By birth she was the princess Kulunchakova.

When Kuprin was only about a year old, he lost his father. The family's financial situation deteriorated, so it was decided to move to Moscow. In 1874, Lyubov Alekseevna and her little son began a new life in Moscow. The childhood of the future writer takes place in this city.

At the age of six, Kuprin was assigned to the class of the Moscow Orphanage School, where he stayed until 1880. Then he studied at the Alexandria military school and military academy. Studying here inspired Kuprin to create works about the life of future military men. In 1890 he was appointed second lieutenant in an infantry regiment. However, after four years Kuprin resigns. At this time, he travels around the world and, in search of himself, gains experience in various professions. In 1901 he came to St. Petersburg and began working as a secretary at the publishing house "Journal for Everyone".

Alexander Ivanovich took an active part in the First World War. At the beginning of the events, he organized a military hospital in the house. And in November 1914, upon conscription, he went to Finland as the commander of an infantry company. One year later, Kuprin was demobilized as a result of deteriorating health.

The February revolution made a strong impression on Kuprin. He sided with the Socialist-Revolutionaries and in 1919 joined the ranks of the White Army, edited an army newspaper. When the Northwest Army was defeated, Kuprin was forced to emigrate to Paris. There he spent seventeen long years, far from his homeland.

For the first time Kuprin publishes his work, namely the story "The Last Debut", while studying at a military institution in 1889. Everyday life of future military men served as an inspiration for creativity. He writes such works as "Cadets", "Juncker".

Becoming a second lieutenant in 1890, Kuprin actually learns what military service is and writes many works on military topics. The author publishes the following works: "In the Dark", "Inquiry", "Moonlit Night".

Many well-known Russian writers, including Chekhov and Tolstoy, were staunch supporters of exercise and found time with their literary pursuits for physical activity, from speed skating to boxing.

Alexander Pushkin

As a child, Pushkin loved gymnastics, games and wrestling. In one of his early poems, The Dream, he ridiculed pampering Petersburg dandies and extolled the virtues of exercise. Spending time in the village, the poet swam in cold water until late autumn and devoted a lot of time to horseback riding. The poet had a reputation for being a good dancer and horseman - he could even ride without a saddle.

The poet was also fond of boxing. In his memoirs, Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky wrote: "In 1827 Pushkin taught me to box in English."

Mikhail Lermontov

The Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov loved to hold fist tournaments among peasant children on his estate in the village of Tarkhany .. In his poem "The Song of the Merchant Kalashnikov" Lermontov described in detail one such tournament, which took place on the frozen Moscow River at 16 century. Lermontov also loved to skate: he learned how to draw "monograms on ice with his skates."

Like Pushkin, Lermontov was an experienced horseman. His horsemanship once saved his life when, during his military service in the Caucasus, he was pursued by armed mountain warriors. Lermontov was also an excellent swordsman and marksman.

Leo Tolstoy

From childhood to old age, the famous author did morning exercises, lifted weights, trained on the bar and walked for several hours. Tolstoy loved to skate and could do the same jumps that he attributes to Konstantin Levin in Anna Karenina. In the winter, he had a skating rink built on his estate in Yasnaya Polyana.

Already an elderly man, Tolstoy learned to ride a bicycle. He was even elected Honorary President of the Russian Cyclists' Society. In 1896 Scientific American reported that “Count Tolstoy. now rides a bicycle to the amazement of the peasants on his estate. " The Moscow magazine Tsiklist wrote: “Last week we saw him skating in the arena in his traditional blouse. The art of owning a bicycle was very easy for the count, and now he rides completely freely "

Anton Chekhov

Before taking up the pen, the famous Russian author tried on more than one profession. Teacher, actor, circus wrestler, boxer, advertising agent, surveyor, fisherman, aeronaut, organ grinder - and this is not a complete list. As Kuprin himself admitted, all this was not for the sake of money, but out of interest, he wanted to try himself in everything.

Kuprin's writing career also began quite by accident. While in military school, he wrote and published the story "The Last Debut" about an actress who committed suicide on stage. For a person who is in the "glorious ranks of the future heroes of the fatherland", such a test of the pen was considered unacceptable - on the same day, for his literary experience, Kuprin went to solitary confinement for two days. An unpleasant incident could forever discourage the young man's desire and interest in writing, but this did not happen - Kuprin accidentally met Ivan Bunin, who helped him find himself in literature.

On the birthday of the AIF writer. u recalls the best works of Kuprin.

Garnet Bracelet

One of Kuprin's most famous stories is based on a real story - the love of a modest telegraph official for a woman of the world, the mother of the writer Lev Lyubimov. For three years, Zholtikov sent the girl anonymous letters filled with either declarations of love or complaints about life. Once he sent the lady of the heart a gift - a pomegranate bracelet, but after the visit of her husband and brother Lyubimova, the hopelessly in love once and for all stopped his persecution. Kuprin added more drama to this anecdote, adding to the story a sad version of the ending - the hero's suicide. As a result, the author has an impressive love story, which, as you know, happens "once every several hundred years."

"Duel"

Kuprin's speech with the reading of individual chapters from the story "Duel" in 1905 became a real event in the cultural life of the capital. However, most of the author's contemporaries perceived this work as slander - the book was full of harsh criticism of Russian military life. In "Duel" against the background of drunkenness, debauchery and the near-by army life, only one bright, romantic image of officer Romashov emerges. However, the author was by no means exaggerating, the story is largely autobiographical. It is based on the personal impressions of Kuprin, a graduate of the Alexander School, who served as an officer for four years in the provincial town of Podolsk province.

Gambrinus

After the publication of the story "Gambrinus" in the Odessa tavern with the same name there was no end of visitors, but few knew that its main character actually existed. In 1921, 14 years after the publication of Kuprin's story, an announcement appeared in local newspapers about the death of Aron Goldstein “Sashka the Musician from Gambrinus”. Konstantin Paustovsky was one of those who read the ad and was sincerely surprised that the crippled musician was not a figment of the author's imagination. Paustovsky even attended the funeral of the "literary hero" among sailors, fishermen, stokers, port thieves, boatmen, loaders, divers, smugglers - visitors to the "Gambrinus" tavern and part-time characters from Kuprin's story.

In 1915, the publishing house that published Kuprin's Pit was prosecuted by the prosecutor's office "for distributing pornographic publications." Most readers and critics also condemned the author's new work, which introduced the life of prostitutes in Russian brothels. It seemed unacceptable to the author's contemporaries that in The Pit Kuprin not only did not condemn, but even sympathized with these women, attributing most of the blame for their fall to society.

"Olesya"

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