The forms of these specific phenomena are manifold. From big sports and organized tourist events to mass physical culture and amateur travel. Climbing mountain peaks - mountaineering - since ancient times arouse deep interest among a large number of the population. But to argue about what mountaineering is: a type of active recreation or a sport in which the main thing is the achieved result, or a very special form of tourism pursuing cognitive goals, continues to this day. Probably, both of his definitions are true to some extent. The artificial opposition of mountaineering to mountain tourism, which still exists among some of the climbers and mountain tourists, is unjustified. This is most likely a temporary misunderstanding.
The natural conditions that mountain tourists and climbers find themselves in, the nature of the natural obstacles they overcome, are completely identical in content and differ only in dosage and distribution along the route.
Mountaineering is one of the most dangerous and extreme types of outdoor activities. The first task of mountaineering is to conquer all the mountain peaks along the way. On this path, there are many different obstacles that complicate the journey. Such as unfavorable weather, too warm winter, or vice versa, too frosty. The most difficult obstacle is the insurmountable height of the mountain peak. But no one stops before that. The very word mountaineering was formed from the name of the mountain ranges - the Alps. Climbers learn to overcome any natural obstacles, rocks, ice, ice drifts, snow landslides and avalanches.
Mountaineering is divided into 3 techniques:
- the first mountaineering technique - rock climbing;
- second - old ice climbing technique;
- the third mountaineering technique is the conquest of snowy slopes.
Let's start with rock climbing. It is customary to overcome rocks in a bundle. This is when several climbers are tied together with a strong safety rope. On steeper cliffs, rock hooks and anchors are used for safety. The one of the climbers, who is the first to move to the top, hammers the safety hooks into the rocks with a rock hammer, a carabiner is attached to them, a rope is threaded into the carabiner. In case of danger, insurance saves lives and ensures safety. This is a very difficult type of active recreation, all the subtleties and skills must be studied for a long time and thoroughly. Risk to life at every turn.
“A smart one will not go uphill - a smart one will bypass a mountain” - the proverb is not about climbers. These guys just conquer the peaks in order to emphasize their enviable qualities. Climbers have become as romantic heroes as astronauts or pilots with submariners. The sporting essence of mountaineering is overcoming obstacles - height, terrain, weather - on the way to the top. Of course, no one races in the mountains, but there are daredevils who want to be higher and faster.
There are several types of mountaineering. The first is rock climbing. Climbing usually takes place where there is no snow and ice. The altitudes are small, there is no oxygen starvation. You don't have to take a lot of warm clothes with you and go in light rock shoes.
Rock and ice - these are combined ascents, during which you need to be able to move on rocks, snow and ice. On such routes there are overnight stays, the pace of movement is low due to the large amount of equipment, plus when climbing 5 thousand meters or more, the body begins to adapt to new conditions. Those who could not get altitude sickness.
High-altitude mountaineering is the conquest of peaks from 6500 meters above sea level. Few are engaged in these types, only professionals. At an altitude of 8 kilometers - the so-called death zone - it is impossible to stay for a long time without oxygen equipment.
Big Wall is an American term for the passage of large walls for a kilometer or more. These ascents have rather difficult routes.
Separately, climbers can engage in ice climbing - this is a competition, the essence of which is to overcome ice walls. The faster one won. The International Mountaineering Federation will never get ice climbing included in the Olympic program.
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What is a ski tour, why does it so rapidly involve more and more outdoor enthusiasts in its ranks, and how to properly approach the collection of equipment for a ski tour and ski mountaineering. In this article you will find answers to the most popular ski tour questions and three checklists for collecting equipment for different exits, from simple ones near ski resorts to multi-day ones with glacier crossings and overnight stays in shelters.
Senior ski mountaineering instructor of the Russian Mountaineering Federation. Member of the Russian Mountain Guides Association. II grade in mountaineering. Participated in the very first and several subsequent World Championships in ski mountaineering. In the AlpIndustry since 1994. Job: manager and mountain guide of the Adventure Team, instructor of the AlpIndustry Mountain School.
Skiing, like most children in our country, from the age of three, mountain skiing from twelve. I was engaged in alpine skiing in Kyrgyzstan on the Tien Shan, there were no lifts, no snow groomers, so going uphill on skis or with skis and descents on virgin lands were the norm. Later, after graduating from the institute, for several years he worked as a ski instructor in mountaineering camps. In 1991, the first trip to Italy took place, to an international meeting of ski climbers (at that time he worked in the Professional Sports Club KamAZ, were engaged in tourism/mountaineering). It turned out 7 days - 7 good skiing, 7 cool descents from the peaks (altitudes from 3500 to 3900 m). After that, it became uninteresting to just ride with a lift, ski tour and ski mountaineering became interesting.
What is a ski tour?
People love to ride, walk and ski. Someone is interested in driving on good tracks, someone likes bumps, riding in parks. There are those who like to ride outside the prepared tracks. And among such amateurs there is a special category of people who gladly climb mountain passes, climb and do it on skis. It is good if the entire route can be walked (and passed) without taking off the skis, but sometimes it is necessary to walk/climb over simple rocks or walk a section in climbing crampons.
The inhabitants of the mountains (Alps, Pyrenees, Scandinavian mountains) were forced to ski in winter, the same necessity forced the armies of the Alpine countries to use skis in winter. Later, "loitering" amateurs also appeared in the mountains. And biathlon and ski mountaineering spun off as independent types from the army ski competition "Race of Patrols" (unprepared tracks, rifles, etc.).
If you are ready to get up from a sun lounger or, for example, have successfully completed your business project on the island, then multifaceted Cyprus offers everyone who has entered its land, regardless of age, social status, income and availability free time, a wide variety of entertainment, activities and walks, impressions of which will remain in the memory of even sophisticated tourists for a long time. At the same time, any of them will be able to find for themselves the most suitable option for active recreation and sports tourism.
The stunning beauty of the Mediterranean is primarily conducive to walking. Usually, the true natural, historical and cultural treasures that reflect the "soul" of the island are hidden from the eyes of tourists, moving at a fast pace from one attraction in Cyprus to another by bus or taxi, observing the surroundings through the camera lens.
But you can really touch the life of Cyprus by walking and talking with people, learning the traditions of the island and admiring the mesmerizing landscapes.
Conventionally, all areas of pedestrian sightseeing in Cyprus can be divided into two blocks. The first is long hiking trails specially designed for European countries by the European Ramblers Association.
In particular, the Cypriot walking route E4 includes 6 sections with a length of 12-35 km, the average travel time along which is 5-14 hours.
The second is the 72 short circular routes prepared by the Cyprus Forestry Department along the most picturesque areas of the area or along the monuments of historical and cultural heritage. For example, the route starts from Cape Capo Greco in the southeast and ends with the Akamas Peninsula in the west.
All routes are divided into categories of difficulty and are intended for various social and age groups of tourists, taking into account their level of physical fitness. The reference points of each of the routes are equipped with information stands with a map of the area and interesting objects of flora and fauna.
The most enjoyable hiking time in Cyprus is late autumn when the sun is not so hot, or spring when the bloom starts.
Hiking in Cyprus can be done both independently and with the assistance of guides and guides, in particular from the Cyprus Tourism Organization (Cyprus Tourism Organization) in Nicosia or its offices in different cities of Cyprus.
It should be noted that camping in Cyprus is practically undeveloped. Chaotic fire-making is strictly punishable by law and is subject to fines of 700-800 euros. Equipment for tent camps is possible only in specially designated areas.
Camping sites in Cyprus are few and usually located in the mountains or on the tracks: Geroskipou Zenon Gardens (Paphos), Governor's Beach Kalymnos (Larnaca-Limassol highway), Polis Campsite (Polis), Fegarri Campsite (Coral Bay beach), Kampi tu Kalogirou and Stavros Forest Station (Troodos Mountains), Platania Campsite (Kakopetria village).
The average cost of accommodation in the campsite is 2.5-7.8 euros per night per person; the cost of parking vans and tents is paid additionally in the amount of 3.4-11 euros.
Outdoor activities are becoming more and more popular all over the world. There are many options for a great time for those who love extreme sports, scenic nature and physical activity. Rock climbing occupies a special place in this list. Mountaineering not only allows you to strengthen your muscles and willpower, but also allows you to see such beauties that the "people below" do not even know about. As the poet said, "only mountains can be better than mountains." Communicating with the wild is a great opportunity given by the passion for mountaineering. There are many places in the world that allow you to enjoy climbing steep peaks.
If you have not been interested in mountaineering before, then Crimea for you can be associated exclusively with beaches, "baklava", the sea and tourist attractions. But, for lovers of active recreation, Crimea is also hiking in the mountains, mountaineering and rock climbing. Here you have the opportunity to combine "beach holidays" with delightful ascents. At the same time, local climbing walls are accessible for beginners and are interesting even for experienced climbers. There are many specially equipped places in Crimea according to the highest international standards. Here beginners will be taught all the basics of mountaineering, they will be given the opportunity to feel the drive on low routes.
Photo by wildman/Depositphotos. om
The advantage of the Crimean climbing walls is their accessibility. They are free and equipped as well as European ones. For climbing, climbers most often choose Mount Sokol in the Sudak region or Mount Krestovaya in the Yalta region. A great place for beginners and more experienced climbers is the Salachik gorge. It is located near Bakhchisarai. There are 120 interesting routes here.
If you have a desire to master the technique of rock climbing, then for this you need to contact the Control and Rescue Service of the peninsula. Here you will be instructed on the necessary equipment, and will advise where you can rent or buy it.
Turkey is considered to be one of the most accessible places for domestic rock-climbers. There are two peaks here that attract even experienced athletes. These are Erciyas and Agri mountains. The height of Erciyas peak is 3917m. It is constantly covered with snow masses and is remarkable for its amazing beauty. The second peak of Agri is better known to us as the biblical Mount Ararat. Its height is much higher - 5165 meters. This is a rather difficult peak and only experienced athletes can conquer it. Climbing it is carried out in the summer. Mountain climbing beginners can be recommended to try themselves on the ascents in the Beydalgar mountains. There is always a mild climate and ascents are possible at any time of the year. And if you like glaciers, as well as the opportunity to meet rare representatives of flora and fauna, then we can recommend the Karachar Mountains. In order to get permission from the Turkish Mountaineering Club to climb, you need to present documents on the qualifications of a climber.
It is impossible to get involved in rock climbing and not love the Alps. The rustic alpine flavor makes Switzerland one of the most favorite destinations in Europe for mountaineers. On the territory of this small country, by our standards, there are forty-eight most beautiful peaks. The height of the local peaks exceeds 4000 meters. The highest of them (4634 meters) is located in the Valais in the Pienin Alps. It is named after the commander Dufour. Switzerland is a climber's paradise. In between ascents, you can visit the famous alpine brewery in Monstein, near Davos. Also in Switzerland is the highest in Europe, the Murrenbach Falls.
The climbers dream is in India