European countries have existed for many hundreds of years. During this time, they experienced many cataclysms, wars, the growth of countries at the expense of colonies and the fall of this system. Every European country has a rich history and unique culture.
Modern Europe, or the "old world", is actually the most interesting part of the world in terms of tourism. Traditionally tourist Europe is the most attractive for tourists from all over the world. This is influenced by the high level of the economies of the countries, the friendliness of local residents and their willingness to provide everything possible for quality recreation. And the need for this is constantly growing, as there are more and more people who are tired of the hustle and bustle of modern megacities. Rest in Europe began to develop earlier than everyone else, and during this time it has risen to an incredibly high level.
Today the number of European countries is 40. Almost all of them are very small in size - 11 countries occupy an area of no more than 50 thousand square kilometers (for example, Switzerland, Estonia. Only Spain and France can boast an area of more than 500 thousand square kilometers. The population of Europe today is about 500 million people and three quarters of them live in high population density, urbanization of territories, high average level of education - all this affects the constant growth of tourist activity of the population.All European countries are very conveniently located relative to each other - there are many common borders, highways and railways.Over many years of neighboring relations, visa regimes have become almost an empty formality, therefore, tourism in Europe is focused not only on foreign visitors from other continents, but also on its closest neighbors.
Traveling for a European resident has become one of the features of modern life. Economic and political stability, the desire of states for close cooperation in various fields only contributes to this. A huge step forward was the signing of the Schengen Agreement, which united 12 European countries into one tourist zone at once - these are Germany, France, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Italy and others. Citizens of the Schengen countries can use one of their passports to visit any of the other countries participating in the treaty. Another step that has a positive effect on the frequency of tourist trips is the introduction of a single currency for all, the euro.
It is in Europe that tourism becomes commercial. By the middle of the 19th century, the tourism business from the sphere of rare elite resorts was becoming a job for almost all segments of the population, and in some countries it was becoming the main source of income.
Tourist Europe is also becoming attractive due to its natural and geographical location. The many bays, bays and inland seas have made the European coast very convenient for the construction of ports and resort areas with beaches. Almost every European state has its own seaside zones. The continental part of Europe is also replete with a varied relief, among which there are lowlands and hills, mountainous regions. And even the mountains in Europe seem to be created for recreation - they are all low or medium, therefore they are not an obstacle to travel, but create a wonderful natural atmosphere for relaxation. Almost everywhere the climate is temperate and very warm, with the exception of the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.
Today it is almost impossible to meet a natural landscape in Europe, because this is the most "cultivated" territory in the world. Only 3 percent of the surface of European lands has preserved its original appearance - these are mainly reserves.
Modern tourism in Europe is mostly cultural and historical. For many centuries, Europe has greatly influenced the formation of the entire world culture. Nowhere else is there such a huge number of architectural and historical sights. Moreover, they belong to the most different eras - the Ancient World, the Neolithic, the Renaissance, the Age of great geographical discoveries. Europe is not just a place for a good vacation for every taste, it is also a historical and cultural heritage of the entire world civilization.
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Wellness tourism in Europe is mainly represented by spa and thalasso resorts due to the large number of thermal and mineral springs and the considerable length of the sea coast. Water treatments are the cornerstone of the wellness system in European resorts.
Spa tourism and spa resorts are the legacy of the ancient Romans who visited thermal springs and built baths throughout Europe, called thermal baths. Such resorts as Spa in Belgium, Abano in Italy, Vichy in France, Baden-Baden in Germany, Buda in Hungary were developed during the Roman Empire.
Many of the historic European spa towns were built around mineral or thermal springs between the 14th and 16th centuries, such as Vichy in France. Vichy waters have been known for their properties to stimulate the body's natural defense mechanisms. At the time, Vichy was considered the “queen of spa towns” (the king was Baden-Baden in Germany).
At the end of the 18th century, the medicinal properties of sea water were scientifically substantiated, which marked the beginning of thalassotherapy, which became especially popular in France. Visits to seaside resorts in the UK (and later in Belgium) were based mainly on the healthy quality of the sea air, and in the 19th century this was even more important than swimming in the sea.
Subsequently, sea water thalassotherapy treatments have been expanded to include sea salt and mud, seaweed, scrubs and salt inhalations. Europe is now shifting away from beach tourism in favor of thalassotherapy and a resurgence of seaside resorts in southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Croatia and Montenegro).
At the beginning of the 19th century, numerous mountain climatic resorts were built in the Alps, Carpathians and around the Mediterranean Sea, offering fresh mountain air and a favorable local microclimate for recovery.
Wine therapy - the use of wine and grape products for body care and healing was used in ancient Egypt in 3200 BC. e., but became widespread when the beneficial properties of grape seeds for the skin were discovered in France. The first spa using wine therapy was opened in Caudalie in 1999, where grape products and wine were combined with bathing water, massages, masks, scrubs and applications.
In Scandinavia, Germany and Finland, Nordic wellbeing is popular - outdoor recreation in the forest or in the mountains. The specialties of Nordic wellbeing are the combination of hot and cold (for example, a sauna followed by immersion in ice water or rubbing with snow); outdoor walks (eg Nordic walking, cycling, skiing); swimming in the cleanest lakes; collection and preparation of food from nature (berries, mushrooms, fish, medicinal herbs).
Iceland is especially attractive for spa tourism. There are two large geothermal lakes - Blue Lagoon and Myvatn Bath, on which spa complexes are built, as well as many natural thermal rivers, springs and pools. In Iceland, not only spa resorts are unique, but also natural landscapes: geysers, volcanoes, glaciers, colorful realite mountains.
The highest European peaks are located in large mountain systems: the Alps and the Caucasus Mountains. Some of them partially run on the territory of Russia.
The Pennine Alps are the longest and highest mountain range on the continent. It runs through 8 European countries, including France and Switzerland. Russian Dykhtau, Shkhara, Elbrus and Bazarduzu are included in the Caucasus Mountains. They are higher than the Alpine ones and are located on the territory of Russia and 5 other countries.
Geographers have not decided what to attribute the Caucasus Mountains to: Europe or Asia. At the first approach, the highest mountain point in Europe is considered to be Mount Elbrus with a height of 5642 m.If the Caucasus Mountains are considered part of Asia, then the status goes to the Alpine Mont Blanc, whose height is 4810 m.
The highest mountains in Europe include the Russian mountain Bazarduzu. It is the southernmost point of the country. Bazarduzu belongs to the Dividing Range and is its peak. The southern part of the mountain is located in Dagestan, and the northern part is in Azerbaijan. Its absolute height is 4466 m.
The summit was first conquered in the spring of 1849 - topographer Sergei Aleksandrov, who served in the Russian troops, ascended it from the northeast. In 1952 climber Genrikh Anokhin made an ascent at night.
Numerous rivers flow on the mountain. Over the past century, 8 large glaciers descended from the summit - at present, the area of glaciation occupies 4 square meters. km. At the moment, there are 2 large glaciers on the slope of the mountain top: Murkar and
In the picturesque alpine meadows, captured in many photographs, herds of sheep and goats with a livestock of many thousands graze from April to early autumn. Among the wild animals: tours, roe deer, chamois, mountain turkeys.
An interesting fact: the name "Bazarduzu" translates as "turn to the bazaar" or "market square". In the Middle Ages, large-scale fairs were held in the nearby Shahnabad plain, where traders of different nationalities gathered. Mount Bazarduzu was a reference point for them when searching for a destination.
Central Europe occupies an intermediate position between Eastern and Western Europe. It includes such historical regions as Transylvania, Northern Bukovina, Galicia, Transcarpathia. On the territory of Central Europe there are such states as Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Slovenia.
There are powerful mountain systems in Central Europe. For example, the Carpathians and the Alps. The area is rich in rivers. For example, Danube, Rhine, Elbe, Vistula, Oder.
From the north, the countries of Central Europe are washed by the Baltic Sea. Slovenia has access to the Adriatic Sea.
Central European States
At the moment there is no generally accepted opinion in the decision about which states belong to Central Europe. Usually they include Germany, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Austria.
The involvement of such regions as Istria, Northern Bukovina, Transylvania, South Tyrol, Friuli, Trieste in Central Europe is controversial.
Most of the states are located on the mainland, but at the same time basins of the largest and most important rivers in Europe are located on the territory of the countries of Central Europe.
The most populous country in Central Europe is Germany. This state ranks 2nd among European countries in terms of population. It is home to over 82 million people!
Legislative regulation of rural tourism will give a powerful impetus to the return to villages of young people who are ready to do small business on the ground, and will help create new places in green sectors of the economy ...
Medieval castles weren't really just large fortresses with massive stone walls. These were ingeniously designed fortifications that used a variety of ingenious and creative ways to defend the inhabitants of the castle from enemy attacks. Literally everything - from the outer walls to the shape and location of the stairs - has been carefully planned to provide maximum obi protection.