TOP - 10: The most interesting national parks in the world

TOP - 10: The most interesting national parks in the world

Goat tour is one of the symbols of the diverse Caucasian nature. The Caucasian tur is a rare endangered animal. This is the name of the mountain goats that live in the Caucasus, their relatives living in other regions are called ibex.

Mountain goat species

These animals belong to the Bovids family, genus - Mountain goats.

The following subspecies of tours are distinguished:

  • East Caucasian (Dagestan);
  • West Caucasian (Kuban, Severtsov's tour).

These varieties are not very different from each other, therefore they are combined into one species, although some scientists distinguish the Kuban tur separately.

These subspecies differ in the shape of the horns. In the Dagestan goat, they are short and heavy, interestingly bent, which is why they look like rams. The Kuban, on the other hand, has long saber-shaped horns.

External signs of the Caucasian tur

Tour is a mountain goat, a symbol of the Caucasus Mountains, which by its appearance resembles the Central Asian inhabitants of the mountains. However, the Caucasian species is slightly lower, and the horns of its representatives are shorter and thicker.

These are large animals of massive constitution with a proportional head and strong limbs. The weight of males is 100-155 kg, goats are much lighter - about 70 kg. Despite the fact that goats seem slow and heavy, they are really dexterous and fast animals that easily jump from one rock to another, "soaring" 3-4 meters up.

The height at the withers is 78-110 cm, and the length is 120-180 cm.

The animals have a reddish-gray color, the coat is thick and tough. The tail, limbs and lower torso are darker in color. The beard is also dark; it is wide, but short - up to 7 cm long. In summer, the beard is shorter, and by winter it grows.

The horns of males are from 70 to 110 cm in length, in females - 20 cm (hornless individuals are also found).

Description of the mountain goat - tour

National parks were created to preserve valuable areas of special scientific, natural, landscape or cultural value. The first official national park was created in 1872. Yellowstone National Park in the United States. ...

So, I have prepared for you 10 of the most interesting national parks in the world, which, in my opinion, are worth seeing at least once in your life.

Yellowstone National Park, USA

My 10 is open to the oldest national park in the world. Yellowstone is located in three states - Wyoming, Montana and Idaho, in the western United States. It owes its name to yellow rocks that can be admired. In the park, we see geysers (the largest in the world), colorful hot springs, canyons, waterfalls, lakes, rivers, wild vegetation and animals, and beautiful views almost everywhere in the park.

All the geological and hydrogeological forms that we can admire on the surface of the park are due to the supervolan, which is located 7-10 kilometers below the surface of the earth. The last powerful explosion of the Yellowstone volcano occurred more than 640,000 years ago.

Currently, thanks to the latest devices, the park service constantly monitors the behavior of the volcano. It is assumed that if a volcanic eruption occurs today, the United States will cease to exist.

Iguazu National Park, Brazil/Argentina

In the case of the Iguazu National Park, I made an exception, presenting two parks of the same name. Why? Because the two parks, not only adjacent to each other, they also share a common goal of preserving the same natural character of the rainforest that surrounds Iguazu Falls. The park, located on the Argentine side, is 5 years older than its Brazilian counterpart and was founded in 1934.

Iguazu National Park was created on both sides of the Argentine-Brazilian border, at the place where the waterfall of the same name is located on the Iguazu River. The Iguazu Falls consists of 270 cascades, and its width reaches 2500 m. The largest cascade is formed by the so-called "Devil's Gorge", from which water falls from 82 meters.

In addition to protecting the unique Iguazu Falls, the park is designed to protect the endangered plant and animal species found in this part of the world. The unique fauna of the park includes, among others, the lazy cat, the largest representative of the Jaguar's big cats.

Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

Torres del Paine National Park is considered by many tourists to be the most beautiful national park in South America. It is located in southern Chile, close to the Argentine border.

The name of the park comes from the name of the massif, consisting of three rocky towers, Torres del Paine (Towers of Pain). Why pain? In fact, it is not known, but it is very possible what exactly muscle pain accompanies when overcoming these hard-to-reach peaks. In addition to the enchanting peaks and other rock formations, the park can still admire numerous lakes or glaciers. Among other things, this diverse mountain landscape, the Torres del Paine National Park, was inscribed in 1978 as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve.

Mountain goats living on the Main Caucasus Range are called tours. The animals are listed in the Red Book, they are shy and cautious, they easily jump on steep rocks.

In nature, there are two subspecies of the Caucasian tur, which are often referred to as different types - Severtsov's tur, or the West Caucasian (Kuban) tur, and the Dagestan - East Caucasian.

They differ in the shape of the horns: in Severtsov's tur, they are curved saber-like, and in the Dagestan tur, the horns are massive and thick, similar to the horns of a ram. Tur belongs to the bovids family, the artiodactyl order.

External signs of the Caucasian tur

The Caucasian tur is a large animal, with a massive body and neck, strong legs and a developed tail 13-17 cm. The body length is 120 - 180 cm, the height at the withers reaches 78-112 cm. Males weigh 65-155 kg, they are much larger than females. The color of the fur is reddish-gray, the tail, chest and lower legs are dark, the lower body is whitish. The coat is dark brown in winter, with a dark "belt" on the back, on the belly of a light shade. In summer, the coat becomes grayish brown. The beard is short, up to 70 mm, dark. The head is decorated with horns with a bend length of 70-100 cm. Females have short and thin horns, about 20 cm.

Caucasian tour (Capra caucasica).

Distribution of the Caucasian Tur

Caucasian tours are endemic to the Caucasus. They are not found anywhere, except for the Main Caucasian Ridge. The Dagestan tur lives in the eastern part of the Main Caucasian ridge, the western regions are inhabited by the Kuban tur.

Caucasian tours are subdivided into West Caucasian and East Caucasian.

The habitat of the Dagestan tur is located along the upper belt of the Main Caucasian ridge to the east of the Terek at an altitude of 4000 meters above sea level. The main habitats are located in the upper reaches of the Samur, Avar and Andean and Koisu, on the Talib, Bogos, Nuktala ridges.

Habitats of Caucasian tours in nature

Tours prefer to feed in places where they are of little concern. The favorite areas of the tours are the upper forest tracts in the places of transition to alpine meadows.

Occupying almost a quarter of China's territory, known as the "third pole" and "roof of the world", the Tibetan plateau has an average elevation of over 4500 meters above sea level. The plateau extends throughout the Tibet Autonomous Region, the entire Qinghai Province, encompasses the west of Sichuan and the south of the Uyghur Autonomous Region. Tibet is located between the Kunlun Mountains in the north and the Himalayas in the south, and from the southwest it is covered by the Karakorum ridge.

The Tibetan Plateau stretches for 1800 km from north to south and 2500 km from east to west, and the area is 2.5 million square meters. km. Most of the streams and rivers in the region are fed by tens of thousands of glaciers in the Tibetan Plateau. And the geographical and ecological features of the plateau conserve water and maintain a constant flow to water bodies.

A variety of ecosystems can be found in Tibet, despite high altitudes and low rainfall. The Tibetan plateau is home to hundreds and even thousands of different plant and animal species. A total of 12,000 species of vascular plants, 5,000 species of epiphytes, 210 species of mammals and 532 species of birds have been recorded. To protect the biodiversity of the plateau, about 80 nature reserves have been established, half of which are national or regional. They occupy about 22% of the total area of ​​the plateau. Most of the protected areas are located in the southwestern part of Tibet.

List of some mammals that can be found in Tibet:

1. Tibetan wolf 2. Tibetan fox 3. Tibetan wild yak 4. Tibetan antelope 5. Pallas cat or pallas cat 6. Common fox 7. Asian badger 8. Tibetan gazelle 9. Jeyran 10. Dzeren Przewalski 11. White-faced deer 12. Kiang or Tibetan wild donkey 13. Tibetan mountain sheep (argali) 14. Himalayan blue sheep 15. Curly hare 16. Black-lipped pika 17. Himalayan marmot 18. Irbis or snow leopard (leopard) 19. Short-tailed hamster 20. Solongoy or wormwood 21. Bactrian camel

List of some birds that can be found in Tibet:

1. Black-headed gull 2. Black-headed gull 3. Rocky dove 4. Great Steppe Lark 5. Alpine Accentor 6. Tibetan snow finch 7. Field Sparrow 8. Eastern funnel 9. Black crow 10. Great turtledove 11. Eastern large lentil 12. Pale Shoreline 13. Black-necked crane 14. Tibetan shrike or Tibetan shrike 15. Himalayan mountain finch 16. Dim warbler or dull warbler 17. Ringed Dove 18. Raven 19. Barn Swallow 20. Brown-headed gull

Wildlife Conservation in the Tibetan Plateau

There are about 80 nature reserves and protected areas in Tibet, but the main ecosystem of the Tibetan plateau is made up of the Changtan, Kukushili, Altintag and Sanyanguan national reserves. And these alpine meadows are directly related to the soil cover, atmospheric and hydrospheric systems of the entire Tibetan plateau, as well as the whole of Asia.

Changtan Nature Reserve

Changtan in Tibetan means “Northern Plain” and stretches from the Indian states of Jamu and Kashmir to the north to the Chinese provinces of Qinghai and Xinjiang. Changtan is the highest mountain reserve in the world with an average altitude of 4,800 meters above sea level. It is dotted with high hills and plains interspersed with mountains of six-thousanders.

Such rare species of ungulates as wild yak, kiang, Tibetan gazelle, Himalayan blue sheep, Tibetan mountain sheep, gazelle have survived on the Changtan plateau. Large predators: snow leopard, wolf, lynx and Tibetan brown bear. And at the very bottom of the food chain are numerous pikas.

Perhaps the best climbers in the entire natural world are the fast and agile mountain goats. These artiodactyls are not afraid of steep slopes and breathtaking height of the cliff. They perfectly climb vertical mountain ranges without falling down. Wise evolution has endowed the bearded and horned inhabitants of the mountains of Asia, Europe and Africa with a unique body structure. And their abilities can be envied by the most experienced professional climbers.

Mountain goat species

These animals belong to the Bovids family, genus - Mountain goats.

The following subspecies of tours are distinguished:

  • East Caucasian (Dagestan);
  • West Caucasian (Kuban, Severtsov's tour).

These varieties are not very different from each other, therefore they are combined into one species, although some scientists distinguish the Kuban tur separately.

These subspecies differ in the shape of the horns. In the Dagestan goat, they are short and heavy, interestingly bent, which is why they look like rams. The Kuban, on the other hand, has long saber-shaped horns.

Horn types

Horns can perform various functions: to attract females during the rut, serve as a weapon of defense or attack, and even regulate body temperature. In bovids, the horns are a bone shaft in a horny sheath. They grow from below from the base, do not branch and do not change throughout life. Horns are used to make mouthpieces, vessels, snuff boxes, combs, buttons, and more. In addition, individual pieces can serve as a luxurious element of the interior.

There are three main types of horns:

  • prisk - bent back, the ends diverge in different directions;
  • markura - straight helical (the number of turns from 1.5 to 6 or more) twisted horns, each in its own direction: right - to the left, left - to the right;
  • bezoar goat - sickle-shaped, widely spread apart.

We have not been seen in the wild, but domestic goats have more than one pair of formidable weapons. There are individuals with three to eight horns.

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