The country's territory is occupied by two large mountain systems: the Alps in mainland Italy and the peninsular Apennines. In general, the mountains occupy about 80% of the territory of Italy. The rest falls on the coasts and the great Padan plain. The peninsular part of Italy is formed by the mountains of the Apennines and Tirrenides. The Apennines, with their gentle eastern slopes and steep cliffs in the west, occupy almost the entire territory of the peninsula. These mountains are of medium height and hilly relief. The insular part of Italy is considered to be the remains of the once destroyed and flooded Tyrrenides. The Alps, located in the north of the country, are usually divided into Western ones, those that border with France, Eastern ones, located on the border with Switzerland, Central ones, neighboring with Austria, and the Dolomites.
The Apennines, with their folded ridges, underwent faults in the Neogene, and then strong uplifts in the Quaternary. Also, the formation of the relief was significantly influenced by volcanic phenomena, which continue to this day. Earthquakes are not uncommon here, which indicate the incompleteness of the mountain building process.
The climate changes significantly in different regions of the country, which is quite natural for such a length in longitude. On the shores of the Ligurian Sea, the climate is rather subtropical. The peninsular part of the country, washed by the Mediterranean Sea, is characterized by a mild climate with long, hot, sunny summers and warm, humid winters. Average temperatures reach + 26 ° С in July and + 10 ° С in winter. The southern edge of the Apennines and the insular part of the country are exposed to hot winds from the Sahara in summer, and then the air temperature can reach 45 ° C. The Alps are dominated by a continental type of climate with hot summers and rather severe winters. The tops of the mountains trap clouds and regularly rain down on themselves. Therefore, the snow does not melt on them even in summer. The average air temperature in summer is about +22 ° С, and in winter -15 ° С.
The territory of Italy is confused by a network of rivers and reservoirs, however, due to the mountainous nature of the landscape, the rivers are not full of water. Is that in the spring the snow melts on the tops of the mountains. The main river of the country is rightfully considered the Po, which carries its waters to the Adriatic Sea. Its length is 625 km, and has many tributaries that originate on the slopes of the Alps and Apennines. In the spring, it tends to destroy everything in its path, so many dams are built on Po. The second longest river in Italy is the Adige (410 km). It originates on the slopes of the Northern Alps and flows into the Adriatic Sea. It has a violent temper, which is why it is popular with kayakers. For the same reason, there are several hydroelectric power stations on it. But at the same time, in its lower part, the river is navigable.
There are many short mountain rivers on the Apennine Peninsula, the largest of which are the Metauro, formed from the confluence of the two rivers Meta and Auro; Potency, with its abrupt change of direction; Esino, only 90 km long; Ofanto, with a source at an altitude of 710 m. The longest river that originates in the Apennines near Tuscany is the Tiber. The Tiber has a length of 405 km. On its left bank is Rome. Most of the Rivers, especially in the south of the country, dry up in summer. There are many underground rivers due to karst rocks. The largest lake in the country, located in its northern part, is called Garda. The mild climate coupled with picturesque landscapes attract lovers of a relaxing holiday here. The sharp, high teeth of the Alpine mountains protect the lake from the winds. Como is one of the deepest European lakes (up to 410 m) located also in the north of Italy. Various species of fish are bred on the lake and numerous coastal villages, surrounded by high alpine mountains, gladly welcome fishing enthusiasts. The border with Switzerland runs along Lake Lago Maggiore, and it is the lowest point in Switzerland (193 m). The length of the lake is 60 km. Its peculiarity is the presence of many small islets.
Mountains are majestic, most powerful and most mysterious creatures of nature. And, undoubtedly, the highest mountain in the world is worthy of attention, because every modern person should know about such a brainchild of nature. Not only fans of active sports, but also the most ordinary tourists never tire of wondering at such a stone miracle, born from the bowels of the Earth and rushing far into the clouds.
However, in the next publications we will continue the series about the "most", and you can find out what is the largest ocean in the world, and its features, as well as what is the largest island in the world and much more less interesting….
Mount Everest has been considered the largest for more than several millennia. The dimensions of such a natural zone are impressive: the southern peak is 8760 m, the northern peak is 8848 m. The highest mountain Chomolungma (the second name of Everest) has the shape of a pyramid with three sides. On the top of this mountain there are strong winds blowing at speeds of up to 55 meters per second. The temperature here at night drops to -60 ° C. The highest mountain in the world is sometimes even scary, and climbers believe that if you have not tried to conquer this queen of the mountains, then you are not a climber at all.
The highest mountain in the world, Everest, is described in many chronicles. The first scientists and professors of geographical sciences spoke about the fact that this object is a leader. Today, those who love mountain tourism prefer to conquer Everest, and not everyone succeeds in reaching the peak of this mountain, only a few have been able to visit the highest point of the stone landmark.
If we consider what the highest mountains in the world still exist, then we can list the following instances: Chogori, Kanchenjunga, Lhotse, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu, Himalchuli, Kunyang Kish, Masherbrum, Namcha Barwa and many other peaks. Many high mountains can be found in the Himalayas, closer to Tibet, although it is at least silly to talk about specifics here, because mountain formations are present across the entire surface of the Earth, on all continents and even on some islands.
The highest mountains in the world have very different names, some were named for their location, others for some other qualities. But all of them are united by a mystery, because even today the origin of each mountain, the reasons for its growth or destruction, have not been fully studied. Estimate the highest mountains in the world - photos can be found on the Internet, numerous travel resources are filled with information about them.
There are countless beautiful mountains in the world that amaze with their splendor. They differ in height, relief and other factors. Which of them are the most interesting and attractive for tourists?
Fantastic mountains are located in the Chinese city of Zhangye and are painted in all the colors of the rainbow. Many eyewitnesses say that they look like an artist's painting painted by nature itself. The impression of the spectacle seen is deposited in the memory and remains for life.
Colored mountain ranges formed several thousand years ago, during the Mesozoic era. Once this area was the bottom of a large reservoir. When you look at them, you are struck by the intricate play of patterns, stripes and lines. The color is due to the reaction of sandstone and other rocks.
Some of the arrays are covered with vegetation, which additionally decorates the landscape. This place is perfect for unusual photo sessions.
An active volcano is located in Exotic Mexico, practically in the center of the country. The name translates as "Smoking Hill". It rises above the surrounding landscape. If the weather is clear, the volcano can be seen for several tens of kilometers. Historians claim that Popocateptel was the object of worship of the ancient Aztecs.
For the first time a certain Diego de Ordaz conquered the peak back in 1519. After that, he even put a picture of the volcano on his family coat of arms. Also, the legendary Che Guevara twice ascended the mountain.
There are more than 10 missionary temples in the vicinity of Popocateptel.
The mountain is located in the Alps, on the border between Switzerland and Italy. This is one of the most recognizable symbols of the country. It is an elegant four-sided pyramid. The slopes are quite steep. The mesmerizing sight attracts crowds of tourists and climbers from all over the world.
Altitude can be one of the main factors for which mountains are known. But, the height alone cannot determine the beauty of the mountain. It depends on several factors like shape, location, etc. Below is a list of the 10 most beautiful mountains in the world.
Regarded as the “Matterhorn of the Himalayas,” Ama Dablam is an internationally popular and beautiful mountain located in the Khumbu region of Eastern Nepal. This snow-capped mountain rises to a height of 6812 meters. The southwest Ama Dablam ridge is a popular expedition route.
This same southwest ridge was used by Barry Bishop, Mike Ward, Wally Romanes and Mike Gill to make the first ascent of Amu Dablam on March 13, 1961. The route has a different level of difficulty. But the views are simply breathtaking.
Overlooking Cape Town, Table Mountain is a natural wonder of South Africa. This peak, which is 1,084 meters high, is a paradise for nature lovers and tourists alike. This magnificent mountain is part of the National Park.
From its summit, you can enjoy a magnificent panoramic view of Cape Town. In addition, the mountain is home to a variety of plants and animals. Many of them are not found anywhere else.
Located on the British Columbia-Alberta border in the southern Canadian Rockies, Mount Assiniboin is one of the most beautiful in Canada. It is the focal point of Mount Assiniboin Provincial Park. The striking 3,618 meter high peak is known as the "Matterhorn of the Rocky Mountains" as it has the same pyramidal shape as the Matterhorn.
The famous Eiger is located in the Bernese Alps of Western Switzerland, on the eastern side of the ridge that includes the Monch and Jungfrau peaks. The Eiger is 3970 meters high and looks amazing from every angle.
The most striking feature of Mount Eiger is the 1800-meter North Face. This is the largest North Face in the Alps. There are several hiking trails to the top of the Eiger.
Our planet is hundreds of millions of years old. For a long time it has been continuously forming, geological changes are still noticeable. Compared to history, all the mountains of the Earth are incredibly old. But which ones are actually the most ancient?
What are the features of the oldest mountains on the planet
It is necessary to understand what features geologists reveal when determining the most ancient mountains in the world. First of all, the mountains must remain “calm”.
The absence of geological processes directly indicates that they have already formed. This can be determined at least by the nature of the flow of the rivers. If it is spontaneous, then the formation is not over yet. On the contrary, well-formed valleys indicate the completion of the process of mountain massif formation. The most ancient mountains of the planet fit in a small list:
It is worth noting that the Himalayas cannot be included in this list, since they are the youngest on Earth.
The Ural Mountains stretch for 2600 km. They are distinguished by incredibly rich flora and fauna. The world of flora and fauna of the Ural Mountains is still subject to study and research by scientists from different countries. The average age of the mountain range, according to some sources, is approximately 600 million years.
However, on its territory there is Mount Pencil, which is considered the most ancient on Earth. Exactly what age it is is unknown, but geologists suggest that it is at least 2 billion years old. The pencil is unique for its base and top. They consist of the world's rarest breed of izrandite. Scientists believe that izrandite is related to the Earth's mantle. The oldest mountain in the world also has the most unique name. It got to her thanks to the Turkic-speaking peoples who called her "the black stone". According to the old model in Turkic, the phrase sounds like "Kara-tash".
The ancient Yenisei ridge is located near the Podkamennaya Tunguska and the Kan River. Its highest peak is the Yenashim Polkan hill, reaching a height of 1104 m. Geologists are still studying these old mountains, and their exact age is still unknown. It is believed to be over 550 million years old. It is known that the Yenisei Ridge has been repeatedly updated. The Yenisei Ridge has a very remarkable relief.
Mesopotamia has the shape of a dome, river valleys are characterized by steep slopes, many are very deep. The importance of the Yenisei Ridge concerns the gold mining industry. Even during the expedition of Yegor Zhmaev, which was carried out in 1839, it was possible to establish that there are as many as 5 mines on the ridge. Literally a year later, crowds of people who wanted to enrich themselves rushed to one of the most ancient mountains of the Earth. It is already impossible to say what gold reserves were at that time, but now it is known that the total weight is 1570 tons. Many animals have found their home on the territory of the Yenisei Ridge. Here you can find wolverine, lynx, brown bear, foxes, ferrets, deer and rams. The territory has long become a place for the production of fur animals. Sable lives in the old mountains, whose fur has always been highly valued among wealthy people.