Three steps to heaven - Indian Himalayas: description

The incredible mountains of the Himalayas

The most majestic and mysterious mountain range on our planet is the Himalayas. This massif, whose name translates as the abode of snow, conventionally divides Central and South Asia, and the height of its individual peaks reaches more than 8,000 meters. The Himalayas are rightfully considered the highest mountains in the world, consider the Himalayas on the map and find out why these mountains are so unusual.

The location of the Himalaya mountain system on the world map

“Where are the Himalayan mountains, in which country” - this question often arises from novice travelers who have heard about the beauty of the most inaccessible mountains on the planet and decided to go there in search of adventure. Looking at the world map, you can see that the Himalayas are located in the northern hemisphere between the Tibetan plateau and the Indo-Gangetic plain. India, Nepal, China, Pakistan, Bhutan and Bangladesh are the countries whose territories cover the Himalayas. The most visited country in the Himalayas is India. There are many attractions and resorts here. The massif is 2,900 km long and about 350 km wide. There are 83 peaks in the mountain system, the highest of which is Everest, the height of the mountain is 8848 m.

The Himalayan mountains on the map consist of three main stages:

  • Sivalik Ridge. This is the southernmost part of the mountain range. The ridge is located in Nepal and affects several states in India. Here the height of the Himalayan mountains does not exceed 2 km.
  • Small Himalayas. This ridge stretches parallel to the Sivalik ridge. The average height here is 2.5 km.
  • Greater Himalayas. This is the highest and oldest part of the mountain range. The height of the ridge exceeds 8 km, and it is here that the highest peaks of the planet are located.

Highest peaks

The mountain range contains 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world. Here are the tallest of them:

  • Chomolungma - 8848 m.
  • Kanchenjunga - 8586 m.
  • Lhotse - 8516 m.
  • Makalu - 8463 m.
  • Cho Oyu - 8201 m.
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Most of them are located on the territory of Tibet, and it is here that mountain conquerors from all over the planet rush, because climbing the highest peaks is the work of a real climber's life.

Flora and fauna

The flora of the Himalayas changes with altitude. The natural features of the Himalayas at different levels amaze with the change of landscapes, flora and fauna. In the foothills of the small Himalayas, terai or swampy jungles predominate, above them are replaced by tropical forests, then mixed, coniferous and finally, alpine meadows appear. Deserts and semi-deserts prevail on the northern slopes. The fauna of the Himalayas is as diverse as the flora. Here you can still see wild tigers, rhinos, elephants and monkeys, and climbing higher increases the risk of meeting a bear, mountain yak and snow leopard.

On the territory of the mountains, capturing Nepal, there is a unique nature reserve, where endangered species of animals are still preserved. The zone is under the protection of UNESCO. Mount Everest is located on the territory of this reserve.

The incredible mountains of the Himalayas

Himalayas - it is here, at the third pole of cold, that almost all the highest mountains in the world are located, the height of which exceeds 8000 meters.

There are not so many such mountains on earth, only fourteen. And they are all located at the point where the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates collide. This place is the "Roof of the World".

Since people became infected with mountaineering, each of them has dreamed of visiting the Himalayas and conquering all these eight-thousanders.

The Himalayas abound with a huge number of rocky, almost vertical slopes on which it is very difficult to climb, you have to use all sorts of technical devices in the form of hammered hooks, ropes, special ladders and other climbing equipment. Often, rocky ledges alternate with deep cracks, and so much snow settles on the mountain slopes that it compresses over time and turns into glaciers that close these cracks, making passage through these places deadly. It is not uncommon for snow and ice to come down, which, rushing down, turn into huge avalanches, sweeping away everything in their path and capable of crushing climbers in seconds.

The air temperature in the Himalayas, when rising to altitude, decreases by about 6 degrees for every 1000 meters. So if at the foot of the summer the temperature is +25, then at an altitude of 5000 meters it will be about -5.

At altitude, air mass movements are usually intensified, often turning into a hurricane wind, which makes movement very difficult, and sometimes makes it impossible, especially on narrow ridges of mountain ranges.

Starting at 5000 meters, the atmosphere contains approximately half of the oxygen at sea level to which the human body is accustomed. Lack of oxygen has a detrimental effect on the human body, sharply reduces its physical capabilities and leads to the development of the so-called mountain sickness - shortness of breath, dizziness, chills and interruptions in the work of the heart. Therefore, usually at this altitude, the human body needs time to acclimatize.

At an altitude of 6000 meters, the atmosphere is so rarefied and poor in oxygen that full acclimatization is no longer possible. Regardless of what kind of physical stress a person is experiencing, he begins to slowly choke. Climbing to an altitude of 7000 meters is already mortally dangerous for many, at such a height consciousness begins to get confused and even it becomes difficult to think. The height of 8000 meters is called the "zone of death". Here, even the strongest climbers can survive for only a few days at best. Therefore, all high-altitude ascents are carried out using breathing oxygen apparatus.

But the representatives of the Nepalese Sherpa tribe, permanently living in the Himalayas, feel quite comfortable at the height, and therefore, as soon as the Europeans began to "master" the mountain peaks of the Himalayas, the men of this tribe began to work in expeditions as guides and porters, getting paid for it. Over time, this became their main profession. By the way, Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, paired with Edmund Hillary, were the first to climb the summit of the Himalayas - Everest, the highest mountain in the world.

But all these sometimes deadly dangers did not stop mountaineering enthusiasts. It took more than one decade to conquer all these peaks. Here is a short chorology of climbing the highest mountains on our planet.

June - Annapurna

French climbers Maurice Herzog, Louis Lachenal climbed the peak of Annapurna, whose height is 8091 meters. Anapurna is considered the seventh highest mountain in the world. Located in Nepal, in the Himalayas east of the Gandaki River, which flows through the deepest gorge in the world. The gorge separates Annapurna and another eight-thousander Dhaulagiri.

The most majestic and mysterious mountain range on our planet is the Himalayas. This massif, whose name translates as the abode of snow, conventionally divides Central and South Asia, and the height of its individual peaks reaches more than 8,000 meters

The Himalayas are in the world, the name of which literally means "the place where snow lives" in Sanskrit. Located in South Asia, this mountain range divides the Indo-Gangetic Plain and is where most of the points closest to the sky on planet Earth are located, including Everest, the highest point (the Himalayas are called the "roof of the world" for a reason). It is also known under a different name - Chomolungma.

Mountain ecology

The Himalayan mountains are distinguished by a wide variety of landscape forms. The Himalayas lie on the territory of as many as five states: India, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Pakistan. Three large and powerful rivers originate in the mountains - the Indus, the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. The flora and fauna of the Himalayas is directly dependent on climate, precipitation, mountain heights and soil conditions.

The foothills are characterized by a tropical climate, while the peaks are covered with eternal ice and snow. Annual precipitation increases from west to east. The unique natural heritage and the height of the Himalayan mountains are subject to change due to various climatic processes.

Geological features

The Himalayas are mountains consisting mainly of sedimentary and mixed rocks. A distinctive feature of the mountain slopes is their steepness and peaks in the form of a peak or ridge, covered with eternal ice and snow and occupying an area of ​​about 33 thousand km². The Himalayas, which in some places reach almost nine kilometers, are relatively young compared to other, more ancient mountain systems of the Earth.

Like 70 million years ago, the Indian plate is still moving and moving at a distance of up to 67 millimeters per year, and over the next 10 million years it will move 1.5 km in the Asian direction. What makes the peaks active from the point of view of geology is also the fact that the height of the Himalayan mountains increases, gradually increasing by about 5 mm per year. Such seemingly insignificant processes over time exert a powerful influence in geological terms, in addition, the region is unstable from a seismic point of view, sometimes earthquakes occur.

Himalayan river system

The Himalayas are the third largest ice and snow in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic. There are about 15 thousand glaciers in the mountains, which contain about 12 thousand cubic kilometers of fresh water. The highest areas are covered with snow all year round. Originating in Tibet, the Indus is the largest and deepest river, into which many small rivers flow. It flows southwestward through India, Pakistan and empties into the Arabian Sea.

Himalayas, whose height at the highest point reaches almost 9 kilometers, are characterized by a large river variety. The main water sources of the Ganges Brahmaputra basin are the Gang Rivers, Brahmaputra and Yamuna. Brahmaputra connects with Gangom to Bangladesh, and together they fall into the Bengal Bay.

Mountain lakes

The highest Himalayan lake, Gurudongmar in Sikkim (India), is at an altitude of about 5 kilometers. In the vicinity of Himalayas there is a huge number of picturesque lakes, most of which are located at an altitude of less than 5 kilometers above sea level. Some lakes are considered sacred in India. Nepalese Lake Titeo in the vicinity of the mountain landscapes Annapurna is one of the most highly mountainous on the planet.

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The route runs in the Indian state Himachal Pradesh. This North-West Indian region, also called the "Land of Gods". It stretches from the foot of Himalayas, whose snow-covered foothills of which tiers towers over the Kangra valley. Snowy peaks, pine, pine, cedar and rhododendron forests, mountain rivers, waterfalls and quiet cozy villages, in which, seems to have changed in the whole century, are adjacent.

We will visit the residence of the Dalai Lama in Macleod Gandzh, called the "Little Lhasa". Here, many Tibetans have found shelter after expulsion. Let's go through the villages of the ancient tribe of Gaddi. Touch the ancient mysterious and mysterious mountains - Himalayas. We will see how two cultures can be combined on one land.

this land is inherent in spirituality. Prayer accompanies us everywhere: her pilgrims whisper, turning over the rosary, it is written by calligraphic letters on the walls of houses, printed in black ink on square flaps of the fabric. The wind caresses the sacred letters and takes them away in the distance, autumning the prosperity of all who she knew. Through equal intervals of the valley, it is announced by the sonorous appeals of the bobs, horns and ritual pipes.

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Difficulty: Things on the tracking can be helped by carrying sherpi, the participants themselves carry only small backpacks with the most necessary. The route of medium complexity, the experience is not required, but it is important to have a good physical form. Two days we will be at an altitude of more than 3,500 meters, the maximum height of the route is 4350 meters, it is possible to manifest mining diseases. There will also be large fluctuations in temperature during the day - from +20 day to 0 degrees at night.

visa. To visit India, it is necessary to get a visa in advance. There are 2 options for receiving: independently, in the visa center in Moscow or with the help of the services of a visa agency.

Daily program

Day

Meeting of the participants at the hostel in Delhi. Check-in to the rooms, as a rule, no earlier than 11 am. Therefore, you can leave your things and go get to know the capital of India. Trust me! She has something to surprise you.

Dinner and acquaintance in the evening.

Day

Today, rested after the flight, we go for a walk. We will visit the Akshardham temple. The youngest, but at the same time a grandiose monument dedicated to Hindu and Indian spirituality and culture. Arriving in India, you should definitely see its magnificence.

Reference data about the tourist sports trip

From March 22 to April 11, 2017, a group of tourists from the t/c University, Kiev, Ukraine, consisting of 7 people, completed a mountain hike of the third category of difficulty in the eastern part of the Nepalese Himalayas. The group covered the 168 km route in 22 days.

Hike parameters

Type of tourism

Difficulty category

Length of the active part of the hike, km

Overall climb

General height drop

Duration

Dates

Characteristics of the hiking areas

The part of the Himalayas we have chosen for the hike is located in the very east of Nepal, near the Indian and Tibetan borders. Due to the large distance from the capital, there are an order of magnitude fewer tourists here, and there are not many locals either. Transport links are not developed - asphalt ends in the town of Taplejung, a dirt road - in the village of Chirva. In May 2017, it should have been extended at least to the village of Tapletkhok, but we did not find it. The way from Kathmandu to the end of the road will take two days, of which at least 30 hours need to be spent in transport.

By car you can reach an altitude of about 2000 m. Higher - only on foot. This is good in terms of high-altitude acclimatization, but hard and long. At the exit from the region, you will also have to spend three to four days on the way from the big mountains to the highways. When planning a hike in the local highlands, at least ten days should be set aside for approaches and exits, and four more for entrances and departures.

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