The main types of tourism

Personal equipment for basic mountain trekking and not difficult mountaineering

Ski tourism - the history of skiing, ski resorts, types of slopes, ski slopes, lifts, rules of behavior for tourists in ski resorts when descending the slopes from the slopes.

Ski tourism

Ski tourism with active winter recreation is becoming more and more popular in our countries every year. The ranks of alpine skiing and snowboarding enthusiasts are constantly replenishing with new fans. The number of ski resorts for these sports is also increasing. It's no secret that winter resorts require a well-developed infrastructure and excellent technical equipment. This is an extensive network of modern cable cars, and equipment for preparing slopes, and equipment for generating artificial snow, and a varied selection of accommodation options, and a whole industry of catering and related entertainment facilities. In different parts of our country there are ski resorts, both "experienced" and relatively young. Both those and others are in constant development, and the competition between them is quite high.

As the winter season approaches, the question "where to go?" ask themselves thousands of vacationers. Residents of our vast countries began to take vacations in winter more often, and the long New Year's holidays allow them to go to the mountains for a whole week. In itself, such a trip is quite expensive, and everyone chooses a vacation spot in accordance with the capabilities of their wallet. A week's trip to the Alps costs a pretty tidy sum, and not every tourist, and even more so a whole family with children, can afford it. You can also choose a ski resort suitable for winter holidays in Russia or at its closest neighbors. And what is important, it can be located not far from the place of residence. Indeed, the distance of the resort from home plays a significant role in the cost of the trip.

Historically and according to its natural data, the Caucasus Mountains were, and still are, the center for the development of alpine skiing and tourism in Russia. The highest in Europe, led by the double summit of the handsome Elbrus (5642 m) and numerous four-thousanders, the Caucasus Mountains attract fans of steep descents, fresh snow and healing mountain air. Resorts in Elbrus and Dombai have existed for more than half a century and have long become classics of ski holidays. Unfortunately, the infrastructure at these resorts is not developing fast enough.

It is not possible to tell about all the ski resorts in Russia, the number of which is already approaching 205, in one article, so I made an article about the most characteristic and most popular resorts, trying to give maximum coverage with taking into account the vast geography of the country.

History of mountain sports development

As you know, alpine skiing originated in the middle of the 19th century in Norway in the vicinity of a town called Telemark. Initially, the skiing style was called telemark. It was invented by the Norwegian Sondre Norheim. It was largely determined by the design of the ski bindings: the heel of the boot was not rigidly fixed to the ski, but could move upward freely. In the turn, the skier, bending his leg, pushed one ski forward, and the other almost touched his knee, maintaining balance due to centrifugal force. Following the "telemark" there was a parallel skiing technique called "christiania".

As the downhill technique and ski construction developed, the number of adherents of downhill skiing increased as well. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, skiers began to explore the Alps and held their first competitions. The program of the first Winter Olympics, held in Chamonix, France in 1924, did not yet include slalom competitions. Only in 1931 slalom and downhill skiing were included in the program of the World Ski Championships, and at the Olympic Games they debuted in 1936.

In Russia, or to be more precise in the USSR, the passion for mountain skiing began in the 30s of the last century. Moreover, this sport began to develop not in mountainous areas, but where there were no real mountains in principle. Vorobyovy Gory became such a place in Moscow. Then it was the southwestern outskirts of the capital, the skyscraper of Moscow State University had not yet been built. Above the slopes, terraces descending to the Moscow River, there were two villages - Vorobyevo and Potylikha. The steep bank became the venue for training and the first slalom and ski jumping competitions. Athletes who later became champions received training here. For the first time, the USSR championship in downhill skiing took place in 1937. It was won by a young alpine skier from the Sparrow, who later became one of the best Russian landscape photographers, Vadim Gippenreiter. And two years later, in 1939, he was the first in history to ski down the eastern summit of Elbrus.

Leisure activities: ideas for free time

Everything listed in the article about basic universal equipment must be taken to the mountains. And also what will be written below.

All this can be bought cheaply in the shops Splav, Decathlon and Sportmarathon (the latter may seem expensive, but I have a 20% discount there, I can share it), and you can still see iron and special equipment in Vento.



If you consider yourself frost-resistant or do not plan to climb above the snow zone, then you can do with a warm vest from the list of basic things. But remember that in the mountains they saw frostbitten ones, but no cooked ones.

It will come in handy in the evening, thrown over a windbreaker on halts, while waiting for partners at the station.

Since he spends most of his time in a backpack, the weight of such a jacket is important. Of synthetic insulation, Primaloft is now the most optimal. You can take it from the down, but remember that if the puff gets wet (rain/sleet), it will no longer retain heat at all, and it is difficult to dry it.

It is better if they are attached around the leg, they will be not only Velcro, but also a zipper. They protect not only from snow getting into boots, but also from small stones when moving along the talus.

In shops you will find membrane gaiters, they cost three or four times more expensive than usual ones. Newbies don't need them. If you decide to seriously go hiking, you are sure that you will not tear your leggings with cats on the first exit, then such leggings should be bought. When you walk, your feet get sweaty, and under normal gaiters by the end of the day you will find wet pants or frost, and the membrane will bring that moisture out.

Pay attention to the material and construction of the cable under the boot - how long it will live when rubbing against stones and how difficult it will be to fix it. There are shoe covers with metal cables, but they do not last long either.

Any gloves will work, but it is best to have multiple pairs.

  • Windstopper fleece windproof warm. They are good for everyone, except that it is a pity to knock them with rope and stones. The fleece also melts and burns your hand if you pickle the rope when you rip off your partner.
  • gloves for working with rope. Special expensive gloves for working with rope are sold in stores, but everyone uses ordinary work gloves. After the hike, you can throw them in the trash or burn them without harming your pocket or nature.

The threat of frostbite of the hands or partial loss of mobility can lead to tragic consequences. Therefore, on the ascent, you need to have several pairs, suddenly one will be lost.

List of winter and summer outdoor activities. Main directions. Tourism as a form of active recreation. The health-improving value of various types of outdoor activities. Examples.

There are many different types of tourism nowadays. The main characteristic is formed based on the needs of travelers. The tourism activity itself is constantly changing, new directions appear, and the process continues to this day.

Here are the main types of tourism and their characteristics, so that you can organize your leisure time to your liking. Who knows, perhaps you have no idea that you can rest like this? After all, tourism is not only a warm sea, yellow sand and endless entertainment under the palm trees. Tourism is a broader sphere of human recreation.

Travel is different, and any connoisseur can choose a vacation to their liking. Active, youth, wellness, children, religious, beach, rural ...

These are just a few popular directions.

“I am a tourist!” - any modern person who:

  • travels out of curiosity,
  • goes on voyages for work,
  • goes to the PVD to sleep in the forest in a tent,
  • travels outside his hometown for rest and treatment,
  • attends training seminars or master classes in other countries.

The root of the word "tourism" is supposedly French, from tour - "trip". But this name has long been applied not only to travel. Tourism and its types are developing so rapidly that it is difficult to count them!

Classification of main types of tourism

Traveling is a way to relax, forget about problems, relax your mind and body. Guidebooks on the main types of tourism suggest dividing it according to geographic principle:

  • Domestic - rest within your own country. Who said that vacationing in Russia is not prestigious? This country has mountains, seas, places of pilgrimage, fishing, hunting and other entertainment;
  • International - travel outside the country. Russians love to vacation in Turkey, Egypt, Spain, Greece and other places. Overseas vacations are not necessarily more expensive than domestic ones.

The classification of tourism by main types implies the division of flows depending on the preferences of travelers. Types of tourism are divided into inbound and outbound. In the first case, we are talking about foreigners who come to us - Russian resorts are especially popular with Chinese guests. Outbound tourism is when Russians go abroad.

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