The names of Siberian cities are visible on the old map of Remezov
Gerard Miller, one of the founders of the notorious “Norman theory,” who was in the Russian service, was the first to assess Siberia as a “land of unhistorical”. In the "History of Siberia" and "Description of the Kuznetsk district of the Tobolsk province in Siberia in its current state, in September 1734" this traveler casually mentions the cities that stood here before the arrival of the Russian people. For example, he reports that in the Malyshevskaya Sloboda (which for almost two hundred years belonged to the Altai mining plants), “at the mouth of the Nizhnyaya Suzunka River, 8 versts above the settlement, and near the village of Kulikova, 12 versts above the previous place, on the Ob - you can still see traces of old cities that were built here by the former inhabitants of these places, probably the Kyrgyz. They consist of earthen ramparts and deep ditches with holes dug here and there, over which, it seems, stood houses. " In another place, the first historian of Siberia specifies: "Here and there traces of old cities and fortifications in which these peoples were located are still found."
In 2005, St. Petersburg archaeologist Leonid Marsadolov first called the megalithic complex in Tarkhat (in the pictures) "Altai Stonehenge". The age of our peer of the Egyptian pyramids is evidenced by geodetic measurements associated with astronomical calculations. The coordinates of the Sun, which illuminated one of the central stones at sunset on the summer solstice, correspond to the epoch of 2750 BC. ... with an error of ± 1000 years.
The dual approach, in which the existence of ancient cities on the territory of Siberia is not denied, but is not of particular interest to researchers, has survived to this day. The overwhelming majority of Russian historians still share the views of the “father of the history of Siberia” G. Iller and point blankly do not notice the cities that stood here hundreds or even thousands of years before the appearance of Yermak. At the same time, it is known that the registration of Siberian cities was laid back in 1552 under Ivan the Terrible, who commanded to draw up the "Big Drawing" of the Russian land. Soon such a map was created, but during the Time of Troubles ... it disappeared, although a detailed description of the land has been preserved.
In 1627, in the Discharge Order, clerks Likhachev and Danilov completed the “Book of the Big Drawing”, which mentions about a hundred cities in the north-west of Siberia alone. And in fact, when the Cossacks came to Siberia at the beginning of the 17th century, they met in a multitude of small fortresses on their way, called towns. According to the Ambassadorial Prikaz, in the Ob region alone, at the end of the 17th century, 94 cities were lined with fur yasak.
In 1940-1941 and 1945-1946, the staff of the Abakan Museum under the leadership of L. Vtyukhova excavated the ruins of a palace built around 98 BC, which existed for about a century and was left by people at the turn of the old and new era. The palace, which received the name Tashebinsky in historical literature, was located in the center of a large city with an area of ten hectares. The building itself had 20 rooms, 45 meters in length and 35 in width. The building is also characterized by a tiled roof, the total weight of which was about five tons. Surprisingly, two thousand years ago, builders managed to create rafters that could withstand such a weight.
News about Siberian cities in antiquity came from Arab travelers. So, at the turn of the VIII-IX centuries, the Arab Tamim ibn al-Muttawai, traveling from the city of Taraz on the Talas River to the capital city of the Uyghurs Ordu-byyk on the Orkhon River, reported about the capital of the king of the Kimaks on the Irtysh. 40 days after his departure from Taraz, he arrived in a large fortified city of the king, surrounded by cultivated land with villages. The city has 12 huge iron gates, many inhabitants, cramped conditions, lively trade in numerous bazaars.
Al-Muttawai saw the destroyed city in the southwestern Altai, near Lake Zaisan, but could not, from inquiries, establish who and when built it, and by whom and when it was destroyed. The richest ore region discovered by Russian miners in the Altai Mountains at the beginning of the 18th century, which is now called the Ore Altai, was actually discovered many centuries before them. The miners only rediscovered it. Developments hastily abandoned by ancient people served as a sure search sign. Who they are is not known for certain until now; historians, along with journalists, call them "chudyu".
Several hundred million years ago Altai was not at all what we are used to seeing it. For many eras, the ocean raged here, volcanoes erupted, mountains collapsed and re-emerged. Altapress. u found out how the territory of Altai changed from ancient times to the present day.
The Paleo-Asian Ocean was located on the territory of Altai. At this time, the most ancient complexes of the Altai Mountains were formed in its waters. It happened like this: volcanoes erupted under the water, and the poured lava solidified. When seamounts rose close to the surface, carbonate rocks - limestones - were deposited on top of the volcanic ones.
In Altai, only one such complex is widely known: it is located in the area of the villages of Kurai and Chagan-Uzun, according to Science in Siberia.
At this time, two large magmatic arcs - chains of islands of volcanic origin - were located on the territory of modern eastern Altai.
The first chain stretched from Biysk to Chemal and even further south. It was an almost continuous strip of volcanoes.
The second began in the upper reaches of the Lebed River, at the junction of Altai and Gornaya Shoria, and continued further south to the upper reaches of the Kuba River, then along the junction of Altai and Western Sayan, to the border with Mongolia.
Now on the territory of Altai there are no volcanoes that can erupt.
According to geologists, since that time Gorny Altai can be ranked as the edge of the Siberian continent. Volcanoes did not erupt, but many granite masses were formed due to the solidification of molten magma. Over time, softer rocks collapsed, and granite massifs came out, forming sedimentary basins with minerals. Now they are located in the central and western part of Gorny Altai.
The Barnaul Museum "World of Stone" has launched tours for schoolchildren in Rudny Altai: throughout September, children will be taken on excursions to Gornaya Kolyvan for free. Altapress. u found out what you can see there and why even adults should visit this place at least once.
The most famous place in Rudny Altai is Lake Kolyvanskoye, which is even included in the list of wonders of Russia. The lake is located in the Zmeinogorsk region, near the village of Savvushka, from where it got its second name - Savvushka. An astronomical station is visible nearby - this is the Altai optical-laser center named after German Titov, a military-strategic facility, however, absolutely safe for the health of vacationers.
On the eastern and southern shores of the reservoir there are bizarre rocks of oval flat stones. Geologists believe that this happened because it was here that the surf line of the ancient sea once passed. Local legend says that these stones were "put in order" by the hero Kolyvan. One way or another, in Altai you will not find such a landscape anywhere else.
Scientists say that people have long settled on the banks of the Kolyvansky: in 1982, archaeologists discovered a settlement of ancient inhabitants of the late III - early II millennium BC not far from the rocks. Today tourists have settled here.
For vacationers on the shore of Lake Kolyvan there are several tourist centers with houses and a camping. Small shops, a hiking bath, and catamarans and scooter rentals are nearby.
In half an hour's drive from Savvushka, near the 8 Marta village of the Kurinsky District, there is Lake Beloe. Tourists love it too: the water here is warm and clear, the coast is gentle, with soft and clean sand. Mountain Sinyukha is reflected in the water surface - very beautiful.
Honeysuckle, raspberry, wild rose, caragan grow on the shore. And in the center of the lake there is a small island of granite rocks, on which, according to local legend, “Akinfiy Demidov himself” was printing coins secretly from Empress Elizabeth Petrovna.
Today the reservoir has the status of a natural monument of federal significance and has long been "overgrown" with infrastructure. On the shore there are several camp sites with houses, a camping area, however, there is a place for those who travel as savages. But there are no attractions here. Tourists who go to Beloye for entertainment remain disappointed: rest here is exclusively meditative.
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