Hiking is a unique experience that you will never regret. These are beautiful landscapes, unity with nature, testing your own strengths, communicating with faithful friends, making new acquaintances and much, much more. However, it is important to remember that there are some dangers in store for you while hiking. In this article, I will list the most common ones and show you how you can minimize the risk of their occurrence.
This includes both weather hazards (hurricane, flood, snowfall) and geological (landslides, rockfalls, earthquakes). These are factors that a person cannot control. Does this mean that you are absolutely powerless here? Of course not!
It is necessary to keep track of the weather forecast for the dates and places you choose for the hike in advance. If the meteorological conditions promise to be bad, it makes sense to either postpone the hike for a few days, or prepare more thoroughly for it (more warm clothes, additional equipment, etc.).
Earthquakes on the territory of Russia are quite rare, therefore geological hazards are mainly represented by rockfalls and landslides. It is advisable to plan your route in such a way that it does not run past the places where the indicated phenomena may occur, however, in the event that you are still hit by a rockfall:
a) do not run down the slope. The speed of rockfall can be very significant, so you need to move perpendicular to the slope to its edge;
b) if the relief allows, hide behind a thick tree, plumb line or large stone (not relevant when moving large rocks);
c) protect your head with your hands. Better if you have a helmet.
Environmental hazards during the hike are mainly presented in the form of contaminated water. It is obvious that a person is able to minimize this danger. There are two main ways to purify water:
a) disinfection using special chemicals;
b) mechanical filtration
Troubles happen, and what is most offensive, they happen exactly when you don't expect them. For example, while relaxing.
And in order to find out what may threaten a tourist while staying in his own or a foreign country, the Russian Union of Travel Industry (PCT) studied the statistics of accidents that happened to vacationers in 2019. This is how a short rating of the most dangerous countries for Russian tourists appeared.
Despite the difficult relations between Russia and Turkey, Russians en masse choose this tourist destination for its cheapness and good service. In 2019, about 7 million tourists from Russia visited this country. But not all of them returned home, due to various accidents, 9 Russians were killed and 39 tourists were injured.
The most famous case was a 12-year-old woman from St. Petersburg, vacationing with her parents at the Sunhill Hotel. Her hand was pulled into the drainpipe of the pool. The child, who spent almost 10 minutes under water, drowned and died.
The second place in the list of the most dangerous countries for Russians is occupied by the popular Asian destination, which was visited by 1.5 million people in 2019. There were killed 13 vacationers who came from Russia, and another 14 of our fellow citizens received various injuries.
In the country where Russian tourists are most often killed, you can find yourself without even leaving your apartment. The PCT explained this by the fact that a large number of our fellow citizens prefer to rest at home.
Over the past year in the Russian Federation, 44 tourists were killed, about 192 more were injured.
Igor Dyatlov's tourist group is not left alone. An endless stream of articles about the "mystical secret", a lot of TV shows, a horror movie, and now here is a TV series. And everyone who takes up the plot talks about some "secret documents", promising to "reveal the secret."
None of those chasing sensations cares about the fact that no secret has actually existed for a long time. For those keen on ski tourism, it was not there almost from the very beginning: all the answers to the questions appeared during the search work.
The main thing is that the tragedy of the Dyatlov group is not unique. And before that, as such emergencies are called in the language of tourists, accidents, and after it there were cases that, if desired, could be declared "mysterious and mystical."
But there were no volunteers, so the investigations proceeded calmly and routinely.
In March 1971, two groups of tourists from the Byelorussian SSR went on a ski trip to the Sayan Mountains. The route, according to the accepted classification, was assessed according to the 5th category of difficulty: only experienced athletes received admission to such trips. Mikhail Koren's group, in addition to him, included Fyodor Gimein, Alexander Fabrisenko, Igor Korneev, Vladimir Skakun, Anna Nekhaeva, Aron Krupp, Alexander Nosko, Vadim Kazarin.
Koren's group reached the first pass on the route with reindeer sleds, after which the tourists continued skiing. True, sometimes I had to carry them on myself, since there was little snow that season. However, then heavy snowfalls began.
By April 10, Koren's group did not reach the checkpoint, after which the search began. Military helicopter pilots noticed a tent knocked down by the wind at the Tofalarsky Klyuch pass. The rescue teams that arrived were limited in their actions due to the high avalanche hazard. Searches were conducted in those areas that could be approached.
The first change of search engines worked without results for three weeks, then it was replaced by the second. On May 13, 1971, the second rescue party completed its work. On this day, the first three bodies of the victims were found. Over the next three days, the bodies of eight of the nine members of the group were found. Some of the dead had to be pulled out from under a 10-meter thick layer of snow.
Korneev's body was found the last two weeks later. He was the most experienced in the group, and his notes made it possible to find out what happened.
The hike, despite the heavy snowfall, was successful until March 22. The group approached the Tofalarsky Klyuch pass, also known as Pikhtovy Pass, and stopped for the night, intending to start the ascent the next morning. It was not possible to fulfill this plan due to the exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease in one of the group members. The tourists stayed in place for three days, while heavy snowfalls continued. On March 24, scouts directed by Korenem forward along the route reported the formation of huge snow eaves on the rocks. The threat of avalanches has become maximum. Despite this, on the morning of March 25, the group began to move. Korneev, who was packing the tent, was somewhat behind the others. At that moment an avalanche descended on the group.
The place of the emergency in the Khamar-Daban mountains in the southern Baikal region is called the “Buryat Dyatlov pass”. Here, in August 1993, during a hike under mysterious circumstances, six tourists from Kazakhstan, led by an experienced instructor, were killed.
Six tourists from Petropavlovsk Victoria, Denis, Alexander, Timur and Tatiana went on a hike led by 41-year-old Lyudmila Korovina. The group moved from the village of Murino to the highest mountain of Khamar-Daban - Khanulu with a height of 2371 meters. For six days, the tourists walked about 70 kilometers, on August 4 they made a halt at an altitude of 2300 meters between the peaks.
Further events are known only from the words of the only surviving girl - 18-year-old Valentina Utochenko. The weather was bad in the mountains - it was snowing and raining, a very strong wind was blowing. At about 11 o'clock in the afternoon, the group gathered to leave the temporary parking lot, but 23-year-old Alexander became ill, he started bleeding from his nose and ears, and soon died.
The head of the group, Korovina, ordered her charges to go down into the forest, which was located about 4 kilometers from the parking lot. When trying to go down, the young people began to behave strangely - at first two girls fell down, began to rip their clothes on, and grab their throats. After a while, young people collapsed with similar symptoms.
Utochenko later told rescuers that her comrades acted as if they were mad or were in a state of intoxication. The girl was able to go down and spent the night at the edge of the forest. At dawn, she climbed to the site of the tragedy - everyone was dead, Korovin was lying on Alexandra, the rest took off their clothes and shoes before they died.
Valentina walked to the people for six days, she was accidentally picked up by another tourist group. At first, she said almost nothing out of shock. Rescuers found the bodies of tourists only on August 26. An autopsy in Ulan-Ude showed hypothermia was the cause of death, but many experienced experts do not believe this explanation.
Two students from Amsterdam, Chris Kremers and Lisanne Frone, went to Panama to spend their holidays there and learn the language. On April 1, 2014, they left the tourist town of Boquette and went on an excursion to the Baru volcano. Climbing the trail takes only a couple of hours, but the girls did not return from the walk.
The local guide sounded the alarm the next day, so the police immediately launched a massive search using helicopters and dogs. It turned out that the girls independently went to the simple tourist route "El Pianisto". It ends with an observation deck at an altitude of 1890 meters above sea level - the so-called "mirador".
Sometimes the hardest questions have the simplest answers. It is not easy to admit that the cause of this or that tragedy was not the intervention of aliens or the actions of special services, but mistakes, lack of will, lack of discipline among specific people, including those who themselves ended up among the victims.
In 1975, in the Soviet Union, there was a terrible story with tourists, in terms of the number of deaths far exceeding the tragedy of Igor Dyatlov's group. Oddly enough, the incident was not hushed up - it was not only reported in the Soviet media, but even a feature film was shot, where, however, the scale of the catastrophe was significantly underestimated.
The death of tourists on the 30th All-Union route is rarely remembered today, in contrast to the history of the Dyatlov group. The whole thing is that in the events of 1975 there is no place for conspiracy - it is known how the emergency happened, and what caused it. But this fame does not make it easier - after all, as it turns out, civilized and reasonable people, finding themselves in an extreme situation, in a matter of minutes can turn into an uncontrollable crowd, where everyone is fighting exclusively for their survival.
The 1970s were the heyday of mass tourism in the USSR. By 1975, the country had over 350 all-Union and over 6 thousand planned local routes. Routes of union significance were developed by the Central Council for Tourism and Excursions of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions, local - by republican, regional and regional councils.
The legendary “thirty” was considered the most picturesque route in the country. If officially - the All-Union tourist route No. 30 "Through the mountains to the sea." It began from the village of Guzeripl in Adygea, and ended in the resort Dagomys.
By the mid-1970s, as they would say now, he did not arouse interest in "advanced" tourists - everything has been known for a long time, there are no special difficulties, even a child can handle the passage. Relative ease, picturesqueness and the finish in Dagomys attracted novice tourists, those who wanted to feel romance, sing songs by the fire, experience an adventure without much risk and hardship.
The groups were large, but the instructors were sorely lacking. As a rule, enthusiasts who, in addition to tourism, had their main specialty, worked on the routes. At the beginning of autumn, they began to disperse, and the shortage of personnel became simply catastrophic. Old-timers remember the cases when a single instructor at the "thirty" led at once three or four groups with a total number of several dozen people. Such liberties ended happily, which, of course, lowered vigilance.
At the beginning of September 1975, at the Khadzhokh tourist base "Gornaya", a group number 93 was formed. It included residents of Uzbekistan, Ukraine and Central Russia who had arrived on vouchers. As expected, the group prepared for the hike for five days, made a training trip to the Rufabgo waterfalls, after which they moved to the Kavkaz camp site, from where they had to start.