We will begin our report by defining what a rock is. These are various stones, minerals and other minerals created by nature. Extraction of coal, granite, basalt, peat, salt, clay, sand has been carried out by man since time immemorial. At first he mined them by hand, but today these works are carried out with the latest machines.
For centuries, thousands of years, minerals have been accumulating in the surrounding world, caking and forming layers in the earth's crust. People gradually learned to use coal for heating homes, to extract salt for food, and stones - for the construction of houses, cladding of buildings.
Rocks can be light and heavy, hard and soft, strongly and weakly porous. The durability of the material and its pliability during processing depend on these indicators. Lightweight and porous stone weighs less. Such material is easier to handle, but at the same time it is less strong. When water gets into the pores, when it freezes, cracks form in the material. As a result, a seemingly strong stone can crack over time.
The Earth's crust contains many different minerals. oto: flickr. om/tarnie
Huge boulders, high mountains seem powerful and eternal. You look at them and think that nothing can destroy them - neither time, nor natural elements. However, over time, everything changes, including rocks. They are affected by water, precipitation, wind, sun, heat and frost. And although destruction is very slow, it cannot be stopped. The form and properties of minerals are gradually changing. Their changes are also associated with human activities. He is able to destroy anything with powerful technology. Man destroys mineral deposits faster than nature.
The formation of any minerals begins with the release of fiery lava from the bowels of the earth. It cools and hardens. This is how igneous rocks are obtained (from the word magma, this is lava). Wind, moisture, high and low temperatures crush stones. Rocks move, settle and form deposits in a specific location. This is how sedimentary minerals are obtained. Over time, mountain ranges sink into the earth's crust, where they melt and turn into lava. Lava breaks out again to the surface of the earth, freezes, and the birth of stones begins anew.
The volcano throws hot debris, ash and magma onto the earth's surface. oto: flickr. om/danielmennerich
In order to study a stone, you need to saw it. And if not completely, then at least partially, make a small saw cut. So you can find out its history, features and time of appearance. A detailed examination is carried out using a microscope.
Humanity uses different rocks in different ways - some more, some less. Among the most used:
The mountains of Switzerland have been conquering the trembling hearts of millions of aesthetes for many years now, delighting human eyes with amazingly exquisite reliefs of mountain ranges, wonders of geological features.
The magic of the Swiss Alps is softly complemented by the elegant sharpness of the silhouettes of stone giants, the fabulous nuances of natural conditions. It is not surprising that mountain tourism is so developed on the territory of this country.
Due to its location in the center of Western Europe, the Alps are considered the most explored system. Many terms and concepts got their name precisely from the name of the elegant peaks (for example, mountaineering, alpine climatic zone, etc.).
Tiny Switzerland, with almost all its dimensions, is comfortably located on the territory of the Alpine mountains, in the south you can see elements of the Pennine Alps, their Lepontinsky and Rhaetian counterparts, as well as the Bernina massif. An amazing system of ridge, stretching from the southwest to the northeast of the small state, is formed by an elegant combination of longitudinal valleys between the Pennine and Lepontine representatives of the mountain voice and the Bernese and Glarne Alps.
The position of the highest points of the alpine areas is proudly occupied by the following specimens: House - 4 545 m; Weisshorn - 4,505 m; Matterhorn - 4,479 m; Jungfrau - 4,158 m; Mönch - 4 107. And these are not all the names of mountain peaks, whose height exceeds 4000 meters above sea level. Also in the list of sharp peaks there are lower, but no less interesting mountain specimens.
Talented scientists have always shown curiosity, studied the alpine territories with interest, thanks to their scientific perseverance, the concept of geosynclines arose first (for the interpretation of a certain summation of mountain ranges), then the theory of plate tectonics.
The tremulous process of the development of the mountain range is divided into several stages. Ancient rocks, as well as zirconium found in the deep corners of the Alpine beauty, indicate that the formation of the Alps took place approximately 540 million years ago, at the beginning of the Cambrian period.
The future massifs of the alpine mountains arose at the junction of two tectonic plates, the collision of the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia. Circumstances developed in such a way that the eastern half of the mountains found themselves deep under water, at the bottom of the ocean.
A crystal is a solid body, which by nature has the shape of a regular polyhedron.
Minerals are natural substances of predominantly crystalline structure with different composition, properties and external features.
Interesting facts from the world of minerals
Minerals → rock
According to the conditions of education, all rocks are divided into three large groups:
Rocks are natural bodies composed of one or more minerals.
The Earth's crust is a source of various minerals.
Minerals are rocks and minerals that humans use.
Magma forms at a depth of 10 to 200 km. Its temperature is over 1500 ° C.
Igneous rocks are composed of crystals of minerals. The faster the magma solidifies, the smaller the crystals. Crystals do not form when magma solidifies very quickly.
Geology is a set of sciences that study the history of the formation of our planet, its interior and the shell available for research. Geology pays special attention to the detailed study of minerals and rocks.
In this article we will touch on the basics of geology, popular terminology, rock classification used in the field of natural finishing stone.
So, let's start with the basics: minerals and rocks. These are fundamentally different terms that should not be confused.
The earth's crust is composed of a variety of rocks and minerals. We often meet many of them in everyday life: table salt, graphite, talc, pumice, marble and many others. Rocks and minerals have a different composition, appearance, color.
A natural body with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure. Roughly speaking, a mineral is a solid substance that is homogeneous in chemical composition, although outwardly it may be heterogeneous, with an insignificant content of impurities and interlayers.
A mineral can have several mineral types, differing in small fluctuations in chemical composition. For example, quartz is found in different forms with characteristic shades: white quartz, lilac amethyst, transparent rock crystal, yellow citrine, dark smoky quartz.
An interesting fact: native mercury, which is capable of acquiring a clear crystal lattice when frozen, is also referred to as minerals. But water is not recognized as a mineral, but as a solution of the mineral "ice"!
In our catalog, minerals are presented in an elite finishing collection: semi-precious minerals - amethyst, sodalite, malachite and agate; as well as quartz, which is often found in the earth's crust.
There are many classifications of minerals.
We will focus on the one based on the prevalence in rock strata:
The highest and longest mountain range wholly located in Europe is the Alps, where there are resorts with excellent ski slopes and unique landscapes. The countries in whose territories these mountains are located attract tourists not only with their unique ecology, but also with numerous attractions.
This mountain range stretches for 1200 km, its width reaches 260 km.
Countries located in the mountainous territories of the Alps:
The most mountainous country in Europe is Switzerland. It is located almost entirely in the Alps.
The highest point is Mont Blanc. It is located at an altitude of 4810 m above sea level, on the border of France and Italy. About a hundred more ridges exceed 4000 m.
The Matterhorn is constantly mountainous. It has several layers of rocks that belong to different geological periods.
There are over a thousand glaciers. The largest of them in area is Aletschsky (about 169 sq. Km).
There is no unequivocal opinion as to why these mountains are called that way. According to one theory, the Alps are derived from the word "white". This was the name of the snowy mountains in the 1st century. BC ...
The most ancient rocks of the Alps began to form about 540 million years ago. Then there was the Early Permian era, during which many volcanic eruptions were observed. Because of them, the Hercynian folds were destroyed.