Sokolova M

History of tourism; we consider carefully

Head of Tourism Development in Modern Times

Development of travel in the XIX-early XX centuries The first tourist organizations

From the point of view of the development of tourism in the XIX century. was a milestone. Even formally, the very word "tourist" appears at the beginning of this century. It appears on the pages of a book by the Englishman Page, who stated that “a traveler is nowdays called a tourist”. There is nothing surprising in the fact that the term was introduced, in all likelihood, by the British, although, in fact, at the same time it began to be used by the inhabitants of mainland Europe. Since the end of the 18th century. in England arose, as indicated, a fashion for young people to travel to Europe after leaving school. Over time, the scale of this phenomenon has increased. In 1888, for example, half a million English crossed the English Channel. Obviously, not everyone left foggy Albion as tourists. Expanding the colonial empire and mastering new markets, the British government mainly relied on entrepreneurs and merchants, as well as the colonial administration, who "paved the way" for tourists. Thanks to these social strata, “colonial quarters” were created in Eastern countries, which in terms of comfort level began to gradually meet European standards. Yes, and in Europe itself, more and more "hotels" began to appear, which, having appeared in the 17th century, differed from ordinary inns by a large set and quality of services, in particular, by the fact that each guest had his own separate bedroom.

Why is England becoming a pioneer in tourism? This fact is largely due to the fact that it was in this country that the industrial revolution began first in the world.

The industrial revolution, being the basis on which the modern world civilization emerges, is a complex of economic, social, political and ideological shifts, a stage of modernization. In terms of its importance in terms of the pace of development, in terms of shifts in various branches of life, it was often compared with a revolution. In the field of economics, it is characterized by the emergence of a large factory industry based on machine production, further growth of scientific and technological progress (STP), urbanization, new forms of organization of production and trade, the collapse of the role of manual labor, etc.

This is a period of rapid development of the productive forces, an opportunity to end economic stagnation and backwardness. Direct dependence on natural conditions ceases. A. Oynbee believed that “the essence of the industrial revolution is the replacement of the medieval system of regulation and regulation. competition ”[7].

The industrial revolution began in England in the last third of the 18th century, and ended in this country by the middle of the 19th century. Here it takes on the most distinctly expressed form, as it were, classical. In England, since the 16th century. individuals began to accumulate significant fortunes. There were no big problems with the initial accumulation of capital, in addition, the domestic market was well developed, these trends were intensified by colonial trade. The direct producers were for the most part separated from the means of production. This led to the formation of a market for hired workers. There was no absolutism in the country, political structures did not interfere with the development of production and free competition.

For our topic, it is extremely important that it is in England that a new type of movement is emerging - the railway. Mining engineer Richard Trevithick proposed using steam engines to move carts on rails. In 1804 he built the first steam locomotive, New Castle. This locomotive could travel at an average speed of about 8 km/h and pulled wagons that could accommodate a total of 70 passengers. In 1808, in the suburbs of London, on a vacant lot, the following attraction was arranged. A steam locomotive "Catch me who can," walked in a circle on wooden rails, and the passengers sat in open cars. But the most famous railway engineer is again the Englishman George Stephenson, thanks to him in 1825 the first public railroad between Liverpool and Manchester was built. The Raketa steam locomotive, designed by Stephenson together with his son, could reach speeds of up to 48 km/h 1.

Characterizing the development of tourism until the 19th century, we can say that it developed not thanks to, but rather in spite of the infrastructure that existed at that time. The legendary Thomas Cook appreciated the advantages of the railway for the development of tourism. It is from 1841, with a mass trip "for a walk", in which 600 people took part, that the era of modern tourism can begin. T. Cook owns the words: "We must have a railroad for millions." Tourism can be developed only with the development of means of transport and world economic relations in general.

Three years later, the enterprising Quaker Temperance Society chairman and evangelist T. Cook concludes an agreement with the Midland Railway Company for wholesale discounts on tickets for tourist groups; Since 1847, his office has been distributing special tickets for both group and individual excursions in the cities of England, and then Europe. T. Cook's quick reaction to any innovations in the field of tourist services is admirable.

The opening of the Suez Canal on October 4, 1869 was turned into a tourist show. The first ship to enter the canal was the French Eagle, with Empress Eugenia on its deck. The Russian clipper "Yakhont" with the Russian ambassador to Constantinople was also among the first. Upon entering the canal, each ship was greeted with a salute and answered. G. Verdi commissioned an opera: this is how Aida was created. 500 cooks and 1000 footmen were invited to the ceremony.

It should be noted that immediately after the 48 solemnly decorated official ships, which followed in the established order, the tourist route was also organized by Thomas Cook.

Sokolova M

Tourism is temporary travel of people from days to 6 months to another country or city and visiting entertainment, sports or educational events. There are many types of tourism. Let's consider three main types of tourism.

MAIN TYPES OF TOURISM

Outbound tourism is the departure of people from a country beyond its borders.

Domestic tourism is the movement of people for tourism purposes within one country.

Inbound tourism - the entry of foreign citizens into the territory of the state. There are other classification categories as well, but they are not as popular.

PART ONE TOURISM - THE PHENOMENON OF THE XX CENTURY

Part one tells about the history of the development of tourism, travel and various types of transport; the conceptual and terminological apparatus that characterizes tourism is considered; reveals the economic significance of the tourism industry, its impact on the economy of the region, the country.

Particular attention is paid to the development of domestic, national, tourism. In this regard, the characteristics of the material and technical base of tourism existing in Russia and the analysis of the current state of the main segments of the tourism industry of the Russian Federation: the transport network, hotel and restaurant enterprises, and various tourist organizations are relevant.

Tourism is a large sector of the economy. All developed countries of the world have long been interested in its development. In the world economy, tourism has taken a leading position, competing only with oil production.

The rapid development of electronic computing technology all over the world and the introduction of automation in tourism make it also a sphere of international information technologies and processes.

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