A safety system in the field of mountaineering is an element of equipment that a climber puts on himself, and to which a rope is attached using a carabiner or a figure-of-eight knot. The fall arrest system is designed to distribute the force during the rope pull due to a fall and prevent injury to the climber. Individual belay systems used in mountaineering must meet UIAA requirements.
In mountaineering, however, as in rock climbing or mountain tourism, there are several types of belay systems - chest harness or upper system, gazebo or lower system, combined or complete system.
The main components in the belay system are:
A self-belaying device is a device that is designed for belaying and positioning a climber on difficult mountainous terrain. The self-belay must withstand the maximum design jerk without damage and destruction and provide a load of no more than 12 kN for the broken one.
Self-belay systems are made in a production way or tied by hand from certified dynamic rope.
In the process of choosing climbing equipment, the main rule for forming an insurance chain is to use certified, tested and manufactured equipment for this task.
For this reason, it is strictly forbidden to use a static rope for lower belay and it is not recommended to use a mustache made of tape for self-belay. However, it should be remembered that even the use of certified equipment cannot provide guarantees, since the use of erroneous techniques or the use of equipment with errors is no less dangerous.
A self-belay from the end of a ligament rope can be tied in just a few seconds and, at the same time, no additional equipment is required:
This method is suitable for either leaders who work on two pitches or for twos. The new UIAA certified dynamic ropes are capable of lengthening forty percent or less during a push factor of 1..
Rocky terrain technique
Moving on rocky terrain is the basis of mountaineering. In order to stay safe, you need to have special knowledge and have a lot of experience in rock climbing. This section is devoted to the basic elements of the technique of movement on rocky terrain.
The rocky relief is diverse both in shape and in the rocks by which it is formed. The correct choice of climbing equipment is the guarantee of your safety on the route.
• Rock hooks.
There are vertical and horizontal hooks (depending on which crack the hook is intended for), there are universal hooks. The hooks are very diverse in shape and length, they are made of different grades of steel, titanium. A well-hammered (with a characteristic rising tone) and well-chosen hook is able to withstand a dash
• Anchor hooks.
• Embedded elements.
Designed for use in sufficiently wide converging cracks. As a rule, they are a set of aluminum bars of complex shapes and different sizes. They require skill at work.
• Mechanical embedded elements (friends).
This is a cam design that allows the cams to fold and set the friend in the crack. They have a similar design. It is possible to distinguish single-axis (all cams on one axis) and two-axis (cams on two parallel axes). Biaxial is preferable, since each such friend is more stable and more versatile, i.e. designed for a wider range of crack sizes.
Personal equipment requirements
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