Mining accidents occur during the extraction of metals or minerals. Thousands of miners die every year from mountain accidents, especially in the process of coal mining and mining. Generally speaking, mining is usually less hazardous than underground mining.
Most deaths today occur in developing countries, especially China. Coal mines in China are the deadliest in the world, killing an average of 13 miners per day.
China had the largest number of coal-related deaths, accounting for about 80% of the world's total, although only 35% of the world's coal was mined.
For comparison, the annual death rate from the coal industry was over 1,000 per year in the early 20th century in the United States. They dropped to about 450 annual deaths in the 1950s and to 141 in the 1970s. The average annual coal production rate dropped to 30 people from 2001 to 2005. 60 to 70 miners still die each year in the US coal and non-coal industries.
Explosive substances associated with production must be treated separately.
1. Methane and successive coal dust explosions
Methane is an explosive gas trapped in coal seams. Mechanical errors from improper use or malfunction of mining equipment (such as protective lamps or electrical equipment) or the use of improper explosives can generate methane and initiate successive coal dust explosions.
Methane and coal dust explosions have caused the largest mountain disasters in history and often kill or capture underground miners.
The tragic accident at Curriere, the worst of all disasters in Europe, was directly caused by methane and dust. This resulted in the deaths of 1,099 miners in northern France on March 10, 1906.
Over the past 25 years, several disasters have occurred in the Altai Territory and the Altai Republic, in which famous people tragically died.
Who: Minister of Internal Affairs of the Altai Republic.
When: Crashed in the Altai mountains in a Mi-8 helicopter in September 1992.
Details: The helicopter flew from Tuva to the Altai Republic. Crew members were killed along with the minister. According to the official version, the plane crash occurred due to bad weather conditions.
Who: Mayor of Barnaul.
When: Killed in a car accident in February 2003.
Details: The car accident occurred on the 467th kilometer of the Novosibirsk-Tashanta highway near the village of Manzherok. The Barnaul mayor was heading to the tourist base. According to one of the versions of the accident, Vladimir Bavarin lost control, which led to the overturning of the car. The mayor died on the spot. His wife survived the accident - she was taken to the hospital with an injury.
Who: Governor of Altai Krai
When: Died in a car accident at the Pleshkovsky intersection of the M-52 highway in the Zonal District on August 7, 2005.
Eight people from Novosibirsk, Barnaul and Biysk began to climb Aktra on July 6. On July 21, after the avalanche vanished, there were two under the snow - Vladimir Milyaev died on the spot.
The son of the deceased Dmitry Milyaev told Taiga. nfo its version of events. He believes the avalanche was not an accident. She could get off because of a safety violation on the part of a group of climbers from the Tomsk region that was climbing along a different path, among whom were amateur beginners.
The editors cite the climber's monologue without abbreviations.
We made a hike of the sixth (highest) category of difficulty along the Altai mountain ranges: Yuzhno-Chuisky and Severo-Chuisky. The route was completely official, registered with the Federation of Sports Tourism of Russia (Moscow) and the Ministry of Emergency Situations (Gorno-Altaysk). The group, which marched under the flag of the Irbis tourist club (Biysk), included the most experienced tourists from Biysk, Barnaul, Novosibirsk - six out of eight participants were candidates for master of sports, for whom this trip was qualifying for master of sports. The youngest participant of the hike is 32 years old.
My father was the assistant to the leader of the hike, the initiator of the hike; since the summer of 2018, he has been actively working on the route in search of a reasonable balance between difficulty, safety and duration. For several months, the route was considered by the Central Route Qualification Commission (CMCC), which gave a positive conclusion and several recommendations, including replacing one of the passes we declared in the Aktru area with the Fizkulturnik pass of category 2B, during the ascent to which a tragedy occurred.
The hike began on July 6 from the village of Beltir. In 15 days we successfully passed the most difficult sections, there were only two passes and about a week of running around with backpacks to the final point - the village of Bely Bom (Ak-Bom). On July 21, we began a 400-meter climb from the Aktru glacier to the Fizkulturnik pass, the steepness reached 60-65 degrees. Each pass has two sides: we climbed the so-called "defining" side, that is, representing the main difficulty of this obstacle, and then we had to descend along a comparatively much simpler side.
The ascent technique was as follows: the one who went first twisted the ice screws into very strong ice, only slightly covered with snow, organized the so-called station and fastened a 50-meter rope, along which the next participants climbed, lifting new ropes and taking off by everyone passed. There were excellent weather conditions - the cool morning was gradually giving way to a clear day. The state of the group is excellent: everyone is healthy, united and emotionally inspired. This allowed us to climb this pass at a very good pace.
Having overcome more than half of the required climb, we found ourselves in the area of a large snow-ice ledge, under which there was a relatively flat platform. When we gathered on it with the whole group, we saw a group of people above, on the pass ridge, on its rocky spurs. Subsequently, they introduced themselves as a group of climbers "Tomsk collection", and their leader called himself Maxim Akhmetov. Their fees were organized, presumably, by the Tomsk regional public organization "Federation of Mountaineering and Rock Climbing", information about their fees is on the website.
In fact, this is just a hodgepodge of mountain lovers. The site says that "everyone is invited to participate, from beginners to experienced."
Obviously, “Tomsk fees” climbed along the “non-defining” side of the pass, opposite from us. They climbed the rocks for a long time, posing for their photo or video shooting, saw us, waved their hands, in response we also greeted them. There were about 200-250 meters between our group and theirs - for a mountainous area this is a tiny distance. In the silence of the mountains, we heard their voices and laughter.
After a short break, we continued climbing, maintaining a high pace, and already at 12:50, Evgeny Filatov, who was walking first, approached the pass ridge and fastened the last rope. At that moment, the same Tomsk group was walking a little higher than Evgeny along the ridge - the guys moved in two bundles of three people each and greeted Evgeny. The first of them climbed up the rise of the pass ridge covered with snow.
The intensification of sports and tourism activities in the Crimea mountains this year fell on the end of April. Rock climbers and climbers from all over Ukraine and their Russian colleagues rushed to the sun-warmed rocks of the South Coast of Crimea. For the first time in years, even the most popular routes have lined up. On Saturday, the rescue squad call did not promise a continuation. Normal, sort of a breakdown. And operational work. You can forget and relax.
On the morning of the last day of the month, the Sevastopol Communal Emergency Service received a signal about an accident in a group of climbers on the wall of Mount Merdven-kayasy. On the “Gift” route of 4-B category of difficulty, the leader in the group got lost, deviated from the classics and went out from the monolithic slab to the wrecked stones. The athlete dumped a huge block on his leg and fell down himself. The observers immediately called rescuers.
Mshatka-kaya, buttress of Filatova.
Rescue service instructor Sergei Plotitsyn notes that the fall of the stone caused a traumatic amputation of the right toes, scalped wounds of the lower leg and bone fractures. The decision was unequivocal - to lift the sufferers to the top, and then by car to deliver them to the hospital in the village of Orlinoe in the Baydar Valley. It was possible to get to the victim promptly thanks to the off-road vehicle of the rescuer-social activist Yuri Kruglov. Master of Sports, Snezhny Leopard, participant of numerous rescue missions in various mountain systems of the world knows the routes of the Crimea well. He took an active part in the rescue operation.
The rescuer of the Sevastopol detachment Yevgeny Ermakov said that after the completion of the rescue work and the departure of the car with the victim, it was decided that all rescuers go down the Devil's stairs to the old Yalta road and wait for the car there. But I didn't have a chance to rest.
The second alarm came when rescuers were folding equipment. There are many interesting routes leading to the top of Mshatka-kayasy. Perhaps the most popular among them is Filatova's buttress of 3-B category of complexity. Quite a monolithic rock, an abundance of natural cracks and cracks for laying safety elements make the route a favorite training place for climbers. The leader of the bunch on this route (on a key rope below a large broken pine tree) fell off and flew vertically enough for a serious injury number of meters. The observers sounded the alarm. The rescuers did not even manage to pack the ropes after the first rescue missions. The severity of the injury did not allow him to procrastinate. They called for reinforcements and started organizing the transportation. Yuri Kruglov has already taken the first victim to the hospital and arrived at the right time to organize new rescue efforts. Falling to a great depth, fracture of two vertebrae, loss of consciousness complicated the transportation work.
Sergey Plotitsyn believes that in this case transportation to the top was justified. The break occurred on the key last pitch. According to one of the veterans of Sevastopol mountaineering, instructor of the rescue service Alexander Yarunov, the cause of the accident is insufficient preparation of the athlete for a route of such complexity, exaggeration of his capabilities and lack of training on natural terrain. The habit of climbing on stands with referee belay plays a cruel joke with many climbers. But this route had to establish its own belay points. This was not done at all. Or, not correct enough. Rescuers are not an investigative body. They may not know all the subtleties of what happened. Their task is to remove the sufferer from the wall and hand it over to the doctors. In the worst case, to prosecutors. They only heard that both groups participated in the training camp of the Dnipropetrovsk climbers. Other details will emerge later.
Another rescue mission, on the previous Saturday, no less complicated, but on the verge of humor, was immediately lost in the scale of the April 30 accidents. The climber on the "Crocodile" route of the Kilse-Burun wall did not particularly risk in case of a fall. Stationary hooks are reliable, their points are set correctly. Like - fly as much as you want. The equipment and not quite correct placement of equipment on the harness played a cruel joke. The anchor hook on the carabiner dangled by itself. During the fall, the athlete hit the rock with the place where the leg loses its name and drove the same hook 10 centimeters into this place. Continuing the ascent was out of the question. Rescuers are great humorists. Otherwise, they would not have survived at their jobs. Having handed over the victim to the doctors, they simultaneously uttered the phrase "I found myself an adventure on the fifth point."
The author of these lines had to go through both routes more than once. Interesting options opened up after the installation of stationary belay points. It was no longer necessary to take a hammer and rocky hooks with you. But the embedded elements required skills in handling them. And these skills could only be acquired on the walls. Under the guidance of experienced guides.
A question arises. Why did Sevastopol rescuers work in the South Coast zone? Because there is no rescue squad in Yalta for a long time. And there is simply no one to help. There are other questions as well. Why was it not provided by the forces of our own rescue team that the gathering of the nonresident alpine club and the ascent of the ascent? Were these fees and groups of climbers registered in the rescue teams of Sevastopol or Simferopol? Was the actual training of the athletes in line with the declared routes? The answers to these questions have yet to be found. And the material side of the matter is not unimportant. Two vehicles of the Sevastopol Rescue Team (RAF and UAZ) have been plowed for 30 years on roads and off-roads, over mountains and snowdrifts. The motor resource has been worked out many times. Driving them is already extremely risky. But no funds are foreseen in the budget for a new car. Alas.
The story of the discovery on Elbrus of the Moscow climber Elena Bazykina, who died more than 30 years ago, shocked people who knew the realities of modern mountaineering only by hearsay.
Many treat the Caucasus mountains with some condescension: they say, not Everest, not the Pamir, just a resort for those who want to feel like a conqueror of the summit.
Rescuers of the Ministry of Emergency Situations working in the region, in response, shrug their shoulders and give dry statistics. On average, during the season, Elbrus takes about 20 human lives: both beginners and experienced climbers.
On August 23, 2018, a group of climbers at an altitude of 4000 meters near the Uluchuran gorge found the body of the deceased. The very fact of finding a corpse in climbing equipment in these places, alas, is not uncommon. But with the woman, well-preserved documents were found: a passport and a plane ticket, dated. April 10, 1987 On this day, a Muscovite Elena Bazykina flew from Vnukovo airport to Mineralnye Vody, from where she went to the foot of Elbrus.
36-year-old Bazykina was a member of the group of the Lenin's club of tourists, who climbed the Western summit of Elbrus. The group was led by instructor Viktor Lykov.
The five climbers consisted of experienced athletes, for whom the ascent should not have been very difficult. Climbers who knew Elena say that in the summer of 1987 she was going to climb in Central Asia, and went to Elbrus for preparation and acclimatization.
However, Lykov's group did not return to base camp. The search work, which was carried out in 1987 and 1988, yielded no results. Until 2018, there were only speculations about the fate of the group. Now the picture has become somewhat clearer.
Did an avalanche kill the climbers?
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