Ufa is a city in the Russian Federation, the capital of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A large industrial, transport, scientific and cultural center of Russia.
Modern Ufa is located at 55 degrees north latitude. A little more than a hundred kilometers separate the city from the Ural ridges. On the map of Russia, Ufa is surrounded by such large industrial cities as Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Samara. Ufa covers an area of 76,519 hectares, the length of the city border is 232 km, the length of the city from north to south is 45 km, from west to east is about 30 km.
The city consists of several isolated massifs, divided into seven administrative districts (Demsky, Kalininsky, Kirovsky, Leninsky, Oktyabrsky, Ordzhonikidzevsky and Sovetsky), occupies an elevated plateau, bordered on three sides by the Belaya, Ufa and Dema rivers ( see Urban landscapes).
The width of the Belaya River near Ufa is 400 m, the average depth is from 1.5 to 5 m, the average duration of freeze-up is 168 days, the ice thickness is 60 cm, the water level rises by 6-9 m. From Ufa downstream navigation lasts about 190 days. The width of the Ufa river, washing the city from the east, is 300 m, the average depth is 2–2.5 m.
According to the preliminary results of the All-Russian Population Census, the population of Ufa is 1,071,600 people. As of January 1, 2009, the city of Ufa accounts for 25.4% of all residents of the republic and 42.2% of the urban population. The number of women (54.5%) prevails over the number of men (45.5%), there are 835 men per 1,000 women. The share of persons under working age accounts for 15.4%, of working age - 65.2%, over working age - 19.4%. The population of the Ufa agglomeration (Ufa, Blagoveshchensk, districts - Ufimsky, Blagoveshchensky, Chishminsky, Iglinsky, Karmaskalinsky, Kushnarenkovsky) is 1,300,000 people. The rural population around Ufa is very dense.
Russians (50.51%), Tatars (28.05%) and Bashkirs (14.76%) predominate in terms of ethnic composition. In addition, numerous (over 1000 people) are Ukrainians (17772 people), Chuvash (10,586 people), Mari (9616 people), Belarusians (5556 people), Mordvinians (3975 people), Armenians (2822 people). , Germans (2213 people), Jews (2082 people), Azerbaijanis (2075 people).
The main religious denominations in the city are Orthodox Christianity and Islam. The religion of the indigenous population of the Republic of Bashkortostan is Islam. The predominant religion of the Russian-speaking population is Orthodoxy.
Ufa is a large interregional transport hub of Russia (railways, pipelines, highways, air and river routes). The navigable river Belaya with its tributary Ufa intersects here with the historical branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Oleg Chegodaev, a traveler from Ufa, calls himself the ambassador of the Ural Mountains. He is the first conqueror of all 255 thousand-peaks of the Southern Urals. The man is convinced that the potential of this amazing natural object is far from being revealed. To change the situation, he came up with an unusual project - he opened the "Embassy of the Ural Mountains" in Ufa.
Aigul Nurgaleeva, AiF-Bashkortostan: Oleg, what is the purpose of creating the embassy?
Oleg Chegodaev: - It should become a potential tourist center of the Ural Mountains (in the old days they were called Ural-Tau). Around them live 20 million people, and visit much less. These are the longest mountains in Russia - 2,300 km from north to south. Traveling a lot, I noticed that informationally the Ural Mountains are strongly divided: we, who live in the south, travel here, residents of, for example, Salekhard - in the Polar Urals. Therefore, the main idea of creating an embassy is to tell about the entire mountain system, to involve it in tourism and travel. The Urals are different throughout, which is great. In general, I think that living in Ufa and not going to the mountains that are almost nearby is strange behavior. These are the safest and most accessible peaks.
- I have formulated three paradoxes of the South Urals. First, its uniqueness lies in its non-unique nature. They always lose in some way to others. The second paradox is safety: there are no rockfalls, avalanches, hungry bears do not sit under every bush. The road network and communications are well developed. You can always go down to the forest area and wait out the bad weather. And the third paradox: the danger of the Urals is in its safety. It relaxes people. For example, they go to Iremel along the path - there you can go up without preparation, with children, even drunk. But a mountain is always a source of increased danger. And he does not forgive mistakes. If you are lost, broke your leg, the probability of freezing and dying is very high. Hence the problems. In fact, few people die on our stretch of mountains. But there are thousands of tourists here.
- Can you calculate the exact number?
- You can, via cellular billing. Because 90% of tourists are not registered in the reserve, there are only a few before going to the Ministry of Emergencies. It would definitely be - to put a tower on Iremeli, most of them don't turn off their phones. There is a connection there, but not all operators, at least an approximate number can be calculated. And then, it will be data for only one vertex.
- Where would you advise tourists to go?
- There is a problem here ... Most of the most beautiful and interesting, potential tourist ridges are located in the reserve, where it is impossible to get there. And this greatly affects the tourism opportunities of the region. Therefore, there are not so many mass routes in the South Urals. They are roughly equivalent, it is difficult to highlight and recommend something. We develop maps for free, offer unusual, non-standard routes. I recommend starting with the national parks as the most interesting and beautiful places, with a system of trails, information, registration, and security is ensured. If you get involved, there are many options. Among the "thousanders" are the Shatak and Krakat ridges, the famous Inzersky cogs, the Iremel, Yalangas, Yamantau, Mashak, Zyuratkul mountains, etc. According to the records of the 18th century traveler Nikolai Rychkov, earlier on Iremel and Yamantau there was snow all year round. Now - only from mid-September to July. Iremel can be conquered from the south and from the north. There is also a route through the Tyginsk bogs. I consider the kurum stone rivers to be one of the most unique phenomena. There is a 6.5 km long Tygyn Kurum River under Iremel.
- Of course, the most comfortable time is summer and the first half of autumn. But it is also good in winter, although this is a dangerous time - scorching wind, frost, there is no room for error! But in the South Urals it is most favorable. Mass ski tourism can develop here: there is no avalanche danger, a high forest zone, but many peaks are still higher, from where amazing views open.
- There are many organizers of trips and excursions on the tourist market. How not to run into non-professionals?
- The South Ural is pleasant in that it does not require commercial tours - you can walk by yourself. And this is the main problem of tourism development here, if we talk about state support. The mountains are quite simple, crowds of extreme sportsmen, as in the Caucasus or Nepal, will not go here. But they are suitable for young, untrained tourists, families with children, pensioners. Most of the routes can be completed in one to three days. The main thing is to have an understandable trail system and navigation. Many signs to tourist sites have been installed this year. But this is the minimum. Because the signpost was set, but the path was not made normal. So far, a dirty, murdered, run-through by timber trucks road leads to any peak. And to get to some interesting place, you need to walk about ten kilometers through the mud. I think the next step will be infrastructure.
Bashkiria, or officially the Republic of Bashkortostan, is located on the slopes of the Southern Urals: taiga forests here side by side with birch groves, steppes are replaced by mountain tundra, and a full range of entertainment is provided for tourists: from skiing and snowboarding to rafting along impetuous rivers, from exploring caves to relaxing on the beach on numerous lakes, from the romance of hikes and tents to prestigious sanatoriums with mineral waters and healing mud.
The rock carvings found in the Kapova Cave (Burzyansky District of the Republic of Bashkortostan) indicate that people lived in this territory back in the Paleolithic era. For those who have forgotten, this is the first historical period of the Stone Age. Well, that is, as long as you can imagine. And much, much later, local peoples began to unite into tribes. So the early states began to form.
And then it was time for the Golden Horde. The first battle of the Bashkirs with the Mongols took place in 1219-1220, and this confrontation lasted until 1234. For a very long time, the Bashkirs held back the onslaught of the Mongol invasion, but, in the end, entered into a treaty with them and united.
After the collapse of the Golden Horde, the land of the Bashkirs was part of the Nogai Horde, Kazan and Siberian Khanates, and also partly of the Astrakhan Khanate. But the incessant feuds and threats from external enemies forced the Bashkirs to join the Russian state. It happened during the reign of Ivan IV. The region began to replenish with Russian settlers. And all would be fine, but after a while the Russians began to oppress the Bashkirs: they seized the land, planted Christianity. Therefore, when in 1773 Pugachev launched his uprising, the Bashkirs did not hesitate to join him. It even has its own national hero - Pugachev's associate, Salavat Yulaev. How the whole thing ended, every seventh-grader knows (or in which class is the "Captain's Daughter" going?).
Bashkortostan is now an autonomous republic on the territory of modern Russia. It is part of the Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation, is part of the Ural economic region, and from a geographic point of view it is the South Ural.
There are 21 cities on the territory of the republic: Sterlitamak, Salavat, Neftekamsk, Oktyabrsky, Beloretsk, Tuymazy, Ishimbay, Kumertau, Sibay, Meleuz, Belebey, Birsk, Uchaly, Blagoveshchensk, Dyurtyuli, Yanaul, Davlekanovo, Baimak, Mezhgorye , Agidel and the capital of Bashkiria - Ufa.
National composition of the population: Russians - 36%, Bashkirs - 29%, Tatars - 25%, etc. In total, representatives of 160 peoples live on the territory of Bashkiria.
There are two state languages - Bashkir and Russian. Signs are most often duplicated in both languages.
The most beautiful nature and unique cultural and historical heritage attract more and more tourists to rest in Bashkiria. In general, the territory of Bashkiria can be divided into three zones: the Bashkir Urals, Mountainous Bashkiria and the Bashkir Trans-Urals.
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