Mountaineering is considered the most difficult and dangerous sport. To engage in them, it is necessary to have a sufficient level of physical and psychological training, as well as possess certain skills.
The conquest of the mountains has always attracted a person. Feelings tested on tops are not comparable to anything else. Therefore, mountaineering is engaged in all corners of the globe, where there are mountains. No exception and Russia. Alps, Caucasus Arrays and Krasnoyarsk Mountains, etc. Every year they collect a huge number of both professional athletes and lovers.
The exact date of the appearance of this sport is not installed. However, it is most often considered to be the date of conquest of Mont Blanc - the highest point of Alps Michel Pakkardom, accompanied by Jacques Balma. It happened in 1786 in the city of Chamonix, which became the center of world mountaineering, the monument was established for pioneers.
In 18b5, the Magnies from the UK was conquered by the top of Matterhorn (4478 m), located in the Alpine Mountains.
High-altitude mountaineering began its history in 1907, with the conquest of the Anglicin Tom Longstaff of the Himalayan peak of Trisup with a height of more than 7 km. above sea level.
In 1950, the French Erzog and Lashenal as part of the expedition went to the top of Annapurna in Himalayas, located at an altitude of more than 8000 m.
Mount Jomolungma Everest (8848 m), which is the highest point of the planet, was taken by N. Tenzing and E. Hillary in 1953
is a rise in the mountains along a complex route to a height of not more than 6.5 km using special equipment. The route can be laid on the sheer rocks, ice and snow. In technical mountaineering, there are many separate directions that are common to which is the ultimate goal - not the conquest of the maximum height, but the passage of the most difficult distances.
This is a rise in a height of more than 6.5 km. Here the main achievement of the athlete is the conquest of the highest peaks. The greatest danger of such ascents lies in the great stress on the human body. Indeed, at high altitudes, there may be a lack of oxygen. Therefore, oxygen equipment is becoming an integral part of climbers' equipment. But even using it, it is impossible for a person to stay at an altitude of more than 8 km for a long time.
Professional ascents can be of a mixed nature, they are also called high-altitude ascents.
Admin · 14.2.010 · Updated 21.6.020
Mountain tourist equipment is a very special thing. Judge for yourself: it should be light, not be afraid of stones and water, mud, snow and ice, easily repaired in case of damage, replace without problems if lost, be as inexpensive as possible, perform as many functions as possible ... I would look at a gin from a bottle who was tasked with creating such equipment. However, people have been walking in the mountains for over a hundred years (I mean tourists and climbers), and during this time a lot has been invented. The path from heavy tarpaulin to light cordura, from fur, down and synthetic winterizer to polar and windblock, from quilted jackets to gortex, from “carrots” to ice-drill hooks, from felling steps to titanium crampons is a topic for another discussion. Our task is to understand what is being used in the mountains now. Equipment can be divided into several large groups. This is a personal, bivouac personal, bivouac group, special personal, special group. Let's start with the personal.
Personal equipment is primarily clothing. Combining all the demands of a mountain tourist in one dress is practically hopeless, at least in our time and for a reasonable price. Therefore, we take quite a lot of different things to the mountains, but we do it wisely, so as a result we feel comfortable in rain, heat and cold, and at the same time all clothes weigh several kilograms.
Socks. Even in very good shoes, you can erase, chill your feet. Usually in the mountains they wear one cotton sock, and one or two pairs of woolen socks. This is done to wick sweat away from the leg and keep it from friction. Recently, many different polar and “thermo” socks have appeared. In principle, some of them are really good substitutes for wool and even surpass it in quality.
Flashlights. When driving on snow, fine loose powder, even with the most wonderful boot, a nuisance occurs - stones and snow fall into it from above. Lanterns are a tube made of nylon, which, starting under the knee and ending at the sole, completely eliminates this. In the simplest case, a flashlight is a pipe with two rubber bands; for convenience, they can be made in the manner of self-discharge, detachable with a zipper on the side. The thing is very useful and convenient, especially when working on snow for a long time.
Shoe covers. Improved flashlights. In fact - a boot made of nylon, sometimes insulated. Shoe covers are worn with cats, otherwise the sole instantly breaks on the stones. Relevant at high altitudes, in winter, on a snow-ice route. Not needed in low categories.
Sports briefs or lightweight shorts can be used for warm weather.
Warm pants and sweaters. The classic hunter of the past is a bearded physicist in a turtleneck sweater and woolen pants. Physicists stayed in the mountains, but now almost no one walks like that. With the advent of a new material - Polara, wool practically lost ground. Polar does not absorb moisture at all, i.e. if wet and wrung out, it will be practically dry. Even wet, it warms. Have you tried wet hair on your naked body? Not a pleasant feeling. But Polar is really class. Polar weighs practically nothing. Polar is of three types - from “one hundredth” to “three hundredth”, the hundredth is the thinnest, is used as a thick T-shirt, a light sweatshirt, the three hundredth is the thickest, goes for warm jackets-jackets and trousers. If you buy a jacket made of Polar (its official name is Polartec), it will be relatively expensive. Tailored to order will cost two to three times cheaper and will be no worse. The only drawback of the Polar is closely related to its dignity - to breathe. Polar is blown by the wind, and if the wind is strong enough, you will feel uncomfortable. In this case, you will need
Windscreen. These are lightweight pants and jackets whose sole purpose is to keep out the wind. In the windscreen and the three hundredth Polar, you can safely work on snow, ice and feel quite comfortable at the same time.
To move in the heat, you need a long-sleeved T-shirt, ideally a vest made of fine wool. Long sleeves are needed to protect from the mountain sun, which burns out - especially on the glacier - is a piece of cake.
Self-resetting. Putting on and taking off your pants without taking off your mountain boots, and even more so, cats, is a very non-trivial activity. For this purpose, self-dumping was invented - pants with detachable zippers on the sides. The thing is extremely convenient, but not applicable everywhere. Self-dumps are sewn, as a rule, from a rather powerful fabric, such as Cordura, avisent - and in a summer hike of a low category, such trousers are simply not needed.
For protection from rain, either ponchos are used (a cape made of thin nylon, which is worn over the head), or anoraks - light jackets made of waterproof material, such as Taffeta or nylon. Unfortunately, these jackets are waterproof on the outside, but they don't wick moisture away from the inside in any way. If you spend 10-20 minutes in such a jacket, it will become completely wet from the inside. The pleasure is small, but just a short time in the rain and freeze. However, if you have money, buy yourself
Mountaineering - it is clear from the word itself - is directly related to the Alps. It was here that a little more than 200 years ago, people began to conquer high mountains. Traditionally, the beginning of mountaineering is associated with the ascent of Dr. Michel Paccard in company with a guide to the highest point of the Alps - Mont Blanc (4810 m).
At the foot of the mountain in the city of Chamonix, a monument was erected in honor of this event, depicting Paccard looking at Mont Blanc. Chamonix has since become famous as a major ski resort. Paying tribute to tradition, in 1924 the first Winter Olympics were held here.
Today, mountaineering for most people is a mixture of excitement, travel and extreme sports. But this was not always the case. During its development, mountaineering has been driven by various drivers. Historically, the following types of it can be distinguished.
Dr. Pakkar, being a human scientist, climbed Mont Blanc in 1786 in order to measure its height. He used a barometer to measure. Packard was wrong by 72 m or 1.5%, which can be attributed to an error in the technique and method of calculations at the time.
Later, throughout the 19th century, when most of the Alpine peaks first met people, it was scientific interest that drove people in their desire to conquer the peaks. For example, the first ascent to the highest mountain in Europe - Elbrus (832 m higher than the Alpine Mont Blanc) - was made by the expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences (1829).
In the twentieth century. the goal of the climbers is changing. By the 1920s. there are no mountains left below 7 km that have not been visited by people. And there are not so many of those that are higher than 7 km. In addition, climbing to such a height requires a long time, equipment and financial resources. The driver of mountaineering in the twentieth century. become governments and people associated with it, who sponsor expeditions to the highest peaks of the planet.
A classic case of such an ascent is the conquest of the highest point of the planet - Chomolungma - by British citizen Edmund Hillary in company with Nepalese Tenzig Norgay in 1953
What we talked about here is quite within your reach. But this is just the beginning. Now I would like to tell you about what lies ahead for you if travel becomes your hobby for many years. This one. adache and the subsequent parts of the book are subordinated. Remember only that you cannot go on difficult trips without special equipment and an experienced leader: it is pointless and dangerous!
When adults say “no” and “dangerous” to people your age, spontaneous protest arises. I remember it myself. So I will try to explain why not. I was fond of various sports, but I never reached perfection in what I did on my own, without experienced trainers. And only those sports skills that I mastered from childhood under the guidance of skilled teachers brought me real joy in life. After all, it's a shame, you must admit, when the younger ones overtake you just because they were taught - and you yourself tried to master the basics, inventing the wheel. You find yourself in unequal conditions, and such inequality can ruin talent.
In childhood and adolescence, it always seems that you can do everything yourself. This arrogance is your life force. But you need to save it at first. And to save time - to take everything possible from what people have already achieved in a finished form, so that the main reserve of strength can then be applied, having already reached perfection, for real discoveries and records.
As for the danger, it is often very difficult to assess it, For example, we think unfamiliar and unusual are dangerous, and, conversely, getting used to something, we lose our caution. Recently, sports travel has become more and more popular. There was also a stream of tourist literature. The result is a habit. And mountains and rivers, and spaces of desertion, frost and hurricane winds will not reckon with this habit.
Only experience allows us to correctly assess the danger and quickly find the right solution.
“The Lunar Mountains, or Rwenzori, are located in the center of Africa, and from the east hilly plains approach them, on which, as it were, the most ancient sites of humanoid creatures who knew how to use primitive tools of labor were recently discovered ... Within the Mountains of the Moon, I met with the lowest people on Earth - the pygmies of the Bambuti tribe, and with the tallest people - the Batutsi. But I also remembered that the largest apes on the planet - mountain gorillas - live in the forests of the Lunar Mountains, and then these mountains seemed to me a kind of natural laboratory, in which various species of ancient primates were verified in practice ... "- writes the candidate of geographical sciences A. Zabelin in the article "Are we all people from the mountains?"
It may well be that we are all "people from the mountains." In any case, when I get to the mountains, I am seized with emotion and deep joy, as if from a new meeting with an abandoned homeland.
Very, very many people aspire to the mountains. Others strive all their lives, but never get through. I sincerely sympathize with them. And those who go to the mountains, they return there again and again. And parting, they say to each other: "See you in the mountains."
Have you heard about mountain insurance? This is when you guard the life of a comrade with a rope. And he protects you. You are tied with one rope, and the expression "tied for life and death" is just as appropriate here.
These beautiful words are full of eternal meaning, because they speak of the highest degree of human friendship. Of course, people should be connected of their own free will. I am not talking about this by chance, because sometimes people who are indifferent to each other, strangers fall into the same bundle. There is no need to explain how dangerous it is.
People are tied with a rope not to die together, but to live, guarding each other. The technical capabilities of the developed insurance are so complex and varied that they turn from auxiliary operations into an interesting task that underlies mountaineering and mountain tourism.
Outdoor activities are becoming more and more popular all over the world. There are many options for a great time for those who love extreme sports, scenic nature and physical activity. Rock climbing occupies a special place in this list. Mountaineering not only allows you to strengthen your muscles and willpower, but also allows you to see such beauties that the "people below" do not even know about. As the poet said, "only mountains can be better than mountains." Communicating with the wild is a great opportunity given by the passion for mountaineering. There are many places in the world that allow you to enjoy climbing steep peaks.
If you have not been interested in mountaineering before, then Crimea for you can be associated exclusively with beaches, "baklava", the sea and tourist attractions. But, for lovers of active recreation, Crimea is also hiking in the mountains, mountaineering and rock climbing. Here you have the opportunity to combine "beach holidays" with delightful ascents. At the same time, local climbing walls are accessible for beginners and are interesting even for experienced climbers. There are many specially equipped places in Crimea according to the highest international standards. Here beginners will be taught all the basics of mountaineering, they will be given the opportunity to feel the drive on low routes.
Photo by wildman/Depositphotos. om
The advantage of the Crimean climbing walls is their accessibility. They are free and equipped as well as European ones. For climbing, climbers most often choose Mount Sokol in the Sudak region or Mount Krestovaya in the Yalta region. A great place for beginners and more experienced climbers is the Salachik gorge. It is located near Bakhchisarai. There are 120 interesting routes here.
If you have a desire to master the technique of rock climbing, then for this you need to contact the Control and Rescue Service of the peninsula. Here you will be instructed on the necessary equipment, and will advise where you can rent or buy it.
Turkey is considered to be one of the most accessible places for domestic rock-climbers. There are two peaks here that attract even experienced athletes. These are Erciyas and Agri mountains. The height of Erciyas peak is 3917m. It is constantly covered with snow masses and is remarkable for its amazing beauty. The second peak of Agri is better known to us as the biblical Mount Ararat. Its height is much higher - 5165 meters. This is a rather difficult peak and only experienced athletes can conquer it. Climbing it is carried out in the summer. Mountain climbing beginners can be recommended to try themselves on the ascents in the Beydalgar mountains. There is always a mild climate and ascents are possible at any time of the year. And if you like glaciers, as well as the opportunity to meet rare representatives of flora and fauna, then we can recommend the Karachar Mountains. In order to get permission from the Turkish Mountaineering Club to climb, you need to present documents on the qualifications of a climber.
It is impossible to get involved in rock climbing and not love the Alps. The rustic alpine flavor makes Switzerland one of the most favorite destinations in Europe for mountaineers. On the territory of this small country, by our standards, there are forty-eight most beautiful peaks. The height of the local peaks exceeds 4000 meters. The highest of them (4634 meters) is located in the Valais in the Pienin Alps. It is named after the commander Dufour. Switzerland is a climber's paradise. In between ascents, you can visit the famous alpine brewery in Monstein, near Davos. Also in Switzerland is the highest in Europe, the Murrenbach Falls.
To conquer the summit of the Himalayas is a dream of many climbers of the world. Climbing the peak of the snow-capped peak and seeing the natural beauty from a bird's eye view is a delight for the soul and joy for the body. Climbing the Himalayas is a struggle of ambition with difficult overcoming obstacles on the way to the top. Not every climber will be allowed by nature to conquer the Himalayas, therefore, experienced rock climbers often take on this challenge and reach their goal.
Mountaineering in India has long been one of the types of sports tourism. For climbers, there is a large selection of routes of varying difficulty and duration. There are expeditions for novice athletes and amateurs, which are designed to climb from three to five thousand meters. Routes over five thousand meters can only be done by experienced climbers, since they require special training and endurance.
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