Mountaineering and mountaineering

Mountaineering and mountaineering

In the Republic of Kazakhstan, the popularity of active types of tourism is gradually reviving. The population living in an unfavorable environmental situation needs a rest in clean air. In addition, the urbanization of the population leads to many health problems due to a sedentary lifestyle. With the help of tourism, it is possible to reduce the general morbidity of the population by 30%, to increase efficiency, there is a desire to learn something new. Active tourism, more than other types, fosters a love for their native nature among the population.

Active tourism is a set of phenomena and relations that arise during a trip, which are characterized by an active way of moving along the route, that is, with the expenditure of physical efforts of a tourist, committed for recreational or sports purposes. In active tourism, there are many types, their varieties and forms. The division into types depends on the nature of the route, the terrain and the way tourists travel.

The main types are: mountain, hiking, water, skiing, cycling, etc. A kind of mountain tourism, for example, is mountaineering, as they are identical to the conditions in which these types and modes of movement are organized. The division into forms depends on the complexity of the obstacles to be overcome (non-categorical and categorical trips), on the organizational foundations of tourism (weekend trips, organized, amateur and commercial tourism) [1].

All types of active tourism depend on seasonality, so they can be divided into two large groups: summer and winter (the transition of average monthly temperatures through 0 o C) (table 1).

Table 1 - Classification of active tourism

Let's consider all types of active tourism in more detail.

Mountain tourism is a type of active tourism, the essence of which is overcoming by a group of tourists the natural obstacles encountered in the mountains (steep climbs, passes, peaks and rocks) on the chosen route with the help of muscular strength and appropriate tourist equipment. Category peaks and passes are usually passed by sports groups that are part of the section and clubs or inexperienced tourists under the guidance of a guide (commercial tourism).

Mountaineering is climbing mountain peaks with a difficulty category of at least 1B. All other ascents are hiking.

In trekking, the main goal is to overcome the passes. The route is counted if all the norms of the route qualification commission (ICC) are met [2,3].

The author calls the classic mountaineering trekking, so as not to confuse the concepts.

All over the world, rock climbing is developed mainly in low-mountain and mid-mountain zones, as well as in Kazakhstan (for example, the rocks of the forestry in the Kishi Almaty gorge). Climbing routes are often found on the plains in the canyons washed out by large rivers. The annual competition for the V. Gorbunov prize is held in similar conditions on the river. Ile in the area of ​​the Pisanyh Rocks for the Nauryz holiday. Rock climbing is also widespread in mountainous areas (Butakovskiy waterfall, rocks near the Tuiyksu climbing camp). It is worth noting the difference between mountaineering and rock climbing. The purpose of mountaineering tourism is climbing mountain peaks, and climbing tourism is the technical passage of rock walls. The general goal of these types is to improve sportsmanship.

Mountaineering and mountaineering

Extreme tourism is a rather popular type of non-standard recreation. There are many varieties of it, so everyone can find something suitable for themselves.

Extreme helps people to relax and get adrenaline. Everyone has their own ways of having fun - some are interested in hiking, while others love diving or rock climbing. Before you go on a trip, it is worth finding out in which country the type of tourism that you prefer is developed. Our article will help you with this.


This beautiful northern country is great for hiking because there are many hiking trails. Hiking tourism in this country is one of the most popular. Traveling in the mountains of Norway will make you feel like the happiest person in the world.

The abundance of mountain rivers makes the country an ideal place for rafting. This is the name of river rafting on special inflatable boats - rafts. Kayaking, rock climbing and mountaineering are also developed there.


This country is a climbers 'and ice climbers' paradise, as well as ski and cross country hikers. There are a huge number of ski slopes and bike rides lasting several days.

This country spends a huge amount of money on attracting athletes and extreme sportsmen from all over the world, so every adrenaline lover can find something to do, and for all 12 months. Rafting is also developed in Austria, because there are many mountain rivers in this country.

All kinds of extreme recreation are thriving in the USA. Due to the fact that the length of the roads is huge, and the roads themselves have a very high quality of coverage, motorcycle tourism, hitchhiking, and car tourism are developed here. Many difficult-to-pass places allow the jeepers to have a good time.

Mountain tourism is developed in the USA: in the north there are many hiking trails and ski resorts. Mountaineering is developed in the mountainous area. The USA is a huge country with many sources of adrenaline available.


Indonesia is included in the list of the best countries for extreme recreation because it is ideal for diving. Diving is diving with or without special equipment. Indonesia has the purest water. If you dive into the water just for aesthetic pleasure, then you will find many places where you can enjoy the beauty of the underwater world. This is called recreational diving.

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Straight thriller

Mountaineering boots

The information is for informational purposes only, is intended for beginners and does not claim to be absolutely accurate. I will be glad if they correct or supplement me, I will try to answer the questions in the comments. Some points were deliberately simplified. All images are taken from the web for example and are not advertising. The post will only focus on climbing boots, climbing shoes will not be considered, as well as trekking shoes. Prices are average for Moscow and for the most popular models. In the beginning there will be general information and an overview of the species, at the end of the post - general recommendations.

The choice of boots for mountaineering is a responsible process: firstly, the boots are expensive, secondly, the general impressions of the adventure largely depend on the comfort of the feet, and finally, thirdly, there are many varieties of boots created for different tasks. In this short review, I will try to talk about the main types of boots and their features. Let's go!

First, let's try to figure out what mountaineering boots are and how they differ from ordinary ones. As a rule, these are warm high boots with a hard sole and ankle, designed for mountain climbing. They are distinguished from other shoes, for example, from trekking ones, by the stiffness of the sole and the presence of welts for attaching crampons.

There are special boots for different conditions and tasks. Currently, we can talk about three main types: single-layer, two-layer and three-layer. As the name implies, they differ in the number of layers. The layers in this case are boots in boots. Single-layer boots are classic boots familiar to everyone. Two-layer - a warm liner and the boot itself. Three-layer - liner, boot and boot cover. Now let's take a closer look at each type.

As a rule, they are designed for small mountains (up to 5000 m) and summer ascents. For example, the Alps or Alpsbori. In large mountains and in winter it can be cold in them and often such boots are insulated with shoe covers. Shoe covers are warm covers that are worn over the boot. Sensitivity to cold is an individual matter and in general it is better to warm up than freeze. They are usually made from leather, synthetic materials, or a combination of these. The membrane is assumed for granted. Their advantages: relatively low cost (

30,000 - 40,000 rubles), a large selection of different models (there are one or two welts, warmer and lighter, etc.), relative wearing comfort, can be used on various types of terrain (rocks, snow or ice). The downside of these boots is that they are difficult to dry. If a shoe gets wet, most often it happens from sweat, then drying it out in the field becomes a problem, and walking in wet shoes is cold and unpleasant. In addition, they are not very durable and can get wet over time.

An example of single-layer boots.

They are also called plastic. The outer shell (the boot itself) is often made of plastic, into which a warm boot is inserted (the second layer). These boots are designed for large mountains (above 5000 m). For example, Elbrus. Under certain conditions, these boots can be used for winter mountaineering. Their plus in high wear resistance and complete impermeability to water. In addition, double boots are convenient to dry - just pull out the liner and dry only it. This is easier and faster to do than drying the entire boot, as is the case with single layers. Cons - relatively high cost (

30,000 - 50,000 rubles), comfort for the leg is mediocre, on rocky terrain it will not be as comfortable as in single-layer ones.

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