Mountain tourism - opportunities for active recreation

Preparation for the III grade in mountaineering in Bezengi

Russian and foreign experienced climbers come to the Bezengi alpine camp. Many, describing this region, gave it the enthusiastic name "Caucasian Himalayas", of which there is not the slightest doubt. Indeed, the panorama of Bezengi is impressive! This year, the courses of the Mining School in Bezengi will again be held under the standard program for the III category. In one 15-day shift, you can make 4 ascents 1B-2A-2A-2B, which in the future will allow you to independently climb mountains such as Mont Blanc, Elbrus, Matterhorn and others. The Mining School instructor Igor Pekhterev told us about the features of the program.

Interview with the instructor of the Mining School in Bezengi Igor Pekhterev

The first time I went to the mountains was in 1984, I was engaged in mountain tourism, quite sportingly and seriously. The asset has hikes 6 k. and guidance of the hike 4 k. Along the way, he was engaged in rock climbing. Home rocks in Zuevka are a great motivator, especially when people like Mikhail Turkevich and Sergey Kovalev are in front of your eyes. In 1990 he decided to try himself in mountaineering. The trip to the alpine camp determined my further destiny - mountaineering. Then there was a school of instructors, then in 2000 he became a master of sports in mountaineering. For me, the brightest and most memorable technical ascents are Half Dome, El Capitan in America, p. 4810, Slesova p. In Central Asia, Torres del Paine in Chile.

I started my coaching career with the organization of a mountain tourism section in 1991. After moving to Moscow, he created the Mountain Club, the purpose of which was initial training in mountaineering, an analogue of the Mountain School. We brought the guys to the II category, and then they themselves decided in which sports club to improve. Training always starts from the basics of sports. It is the first steps on the path of becoming that are decisive. It is clear that the sports component is always brighter and more attractive.

I am convinced that you need to give effective things first, and then effective ones.

In my opinion, this approach has helped many people to quite competently decide where and how to grow further.

I worked as an instructor in Bezengi for 3 seasons. In my opinion, the two-week training program for the III category "Alpinist" has now been finalized to the smallest detail. The basic principle is that we learn what we immediately fix on the ascents. The program is aimed at obtaining the minimum knowledge and skills in mountaineering for successful ascents under the guidance of instructor guides to four summits within the program. Perfect ascents play not so much the role of credit as motivating for the self-determination of the participants and further conscious learning. Someone decides to go to the mountains and on routes with guides, and someone will choose the road to sports mountaineering.

For participants who have successfully completed the program and have chosen the path to the sport, this approach allows in more depth, with a clear understanding of "what" and "why", to master the full theoretical and practical course of mountaineering in the off-season. And, returning to the mountains next season, open the missing mountain 1B, automatically close the III grade standard for mountaineering and continue sports improvement.

The advantage of our program is that we first demonstrate and then take the participants to the level of self-study.

The Mountaineer program is aimed at people who are motivated to engage in sports mountaineering. It doesn't matter if someone has experience of climbing Elbrus, Kazbek or Lenin Peak. There you go with a guide, and here we teach independence in the mountains. Therefore, this program helps to understand who is better to go to the mountains with guides, and who is ready to learn to walk independently and compete in mountaineering. The advantage of the program, of course, is that people immediately understand what mountains are. The downside is, perhaps, that the program is not so much physically difficult as psychologically.

It is important for the participants to understand here and tune in that they themselves do all the work in the mountains.

However, this is a tutorial, which means there is a lot to learn and hard to learn. There are examples of people finishing the Alpinist program and returning to the mountains a year later with a different knowledge base. Indeed, it is realistic to complete the program from scratch, i.e. to close all four mountains in 2 weeks, and there are examples of this. But there are also opposite examples of failure to complete the course of the program. I believe if your motivation dominates your ambition, then the program is doable! But if your ambitions are higher than expectations, then, unfortunately, nothing will work out.

Tours to Montenegro

For many, the magic of the mountains is inexplicable. Every season, numerous groups of tourists walk along mountain paths, overcoming passes and rough rivers. Mountain tourism as a type of sports recreation is becoming more and more popular.

What is mountain tourism

Tourism belongs to the category of mountain tourism, if pedestrian crossings are carried out at an altitude of 2.5 km and above. Despite the mesmerizing beauty of snowy peaks and emerald green alpine meadows, the mountains are dangerous and treacherous.

Therefore, the route requires physical and psychological preparation. This type of vigorous activity is extreme. It is contraindicated for humans:

  • with diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
  • chronic diseases of the nasopharynx;
  • serious infectious diseases;
  • endocrine pathologies systems.

History

It is believed that the history of mountain tourism began with the conquest of Mont Blanc in 1786. A hundred years later, the first mountain club appeared in the Russian Empire, in the Caucasus. Its members:

  • carried out scientific research in the mountains;
  • developed new routes;
  • popularized hiking in the mountains.

The active spread of mountain tourism began in Soviet times. With the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, there was a massive enthusiasm for students, working youth, representatives of the scientific community for hiking in the mountains. Training camps and clubs were organized, which played a great educational and organizing role. During one summer season, up to a thousand people were trained in mountaineering camps in the North Caucasus.

Difference from mountaineering

Active tours in Montenegro: selection of a tour for any tourist. Go on exciting hikes with the Adventure Club along a variety of routes!

Every time before starting a new business, it is necessary to determine the goal and understand why we are taking on this work. The purpose of this article is to give step-by-step instructions for self-organization of a mountain hike using a specific example. The material is primarily aimed at novice tourists who are just going on their first trip to the mountains. So let's get started!

Step: define goals

At the planning stage, it is very important to decide what you want to get from the upcoming route. Is your goal a sports category, where the number of passes and mileage are important? Or are you a photographer who is primarily concerned with views and locations? Or maybe you just want to take a walk away from civilization? Based on your goal, your route, traffic schedule and daily routine will be built. And most importantly, your goal should match those of your partners!

If the goal is a sports category, then you have a direct road to the tourist club. In this material, we proceed from the requests of amateur mountain tourism, and the route will be selected, focusing on novice tourists. Our future hike should be within the power of people with good physical fitness, to pass it you will not need special climbing equipment (only the most basic: a helmet), while we will have a full-fledged, autonomous mountain hike for about 8-10 walking days to keep within standard two-week vacation.

Step: determine the location

The first trip is logical to organize in the "home" mountains. We have a wide choice, and logistics will be much easier. Below we will give a general description of the main mountain regions, and the final choice is left to you.

Located on the Kola Peninsula, the Khibiny massif is well known and quite popular among tourists. This is one of the oldest mountain systems in Russia. The mountains are not high, formed from large stone blocks, the peaks are flattened. The highest point is Mount Yudychvumchorr (1200.6 m). A large number of streams and lakes are found in the valleys. The northern mountains have their own unique charm. And if in the end you decide on the Khibiny, we strongly recommend taking with you "The Lord of the Rings" or "The Hobbit" - Tolkien in the Khibiny is read with a bang. The strengths of these mountains include simple logistics: the most convenient way to get there is by train. Most often, the routes start from the Imandra station, and leave in the Apatit area or in Kirovsk. Low altitude also has its advantages - there is no need to think about acclimatization. This area is very popular, so there will be no problems with the description of the routes. The main disadvantages are prolonged rains, which are not uncommon in the Khibiny. The most stable weather in these mountains is in late July and early August.

The Caucasus is the birthplace of Russian mountaineering. In these mountains, many of us set out on our first hikes, climbed the first peaks. For us, these are "home" mountains, which are very popular among sports tourists. If we talk about the Caucasus, then it is most convenient to divide it into several tourist regions.

Elbrus is the central and most popular region of the Caucasus. In addition to Elbrus itself, tourists are attracted by interesting valleys in this area, a large mass of passes of various complexity, allowing you to create a route for every taste. Many people plan to hike in such a way as to climb Elbrus at the end.

Teberda, Dombay, Arkhyz - these areas belong to the Western Caucasus and also give a great flight for creativity. Since the times of the USSR and all-Union tourist routes, planned groups of tourists have walked in this area. As the main thread, you can take a very popular route from Teberda to Arkhyz, and then choose interesting places and build your own plan. It should be remembered that some of these areas are located on the territory of the Caucasian Reserve, in which case a pass may be required.

North-Western Caucasus, Lago-Naki plateau, areas of the Fisht, Oshten, Pseashkho mountains. These areas are popular with mountain and hikers. They are located on the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve. On his website you can see all available routes, they are well described and marked. Please be aware that you will need a pass. It can be issued at any cordon from which your route will begin. In addition, you cannot leave the marked trails - after all, you are on the territory of the reserve. It should be borne in mind that some areas may be closed to the public (this may be due to the breeding season or the recount of animals). All information can be found on the site of the reserve: . u/

In general, the Caucasus has a lot of advantages: all the regions are well known, and wherever you decide to go, you can easily find the necessary information on the Internet. The same is with logistics - as a rule, no one has any problems with delivery. Rescuers work well in the Caucasus, and there are many tourist groups who will surely help you in case of an emergency. But here lies the main drawback of the Caucasus - an oversupply of tourists during the season. The Elbrus region is especially crowded in summer.

Mountainous Crimea is also a great place for planning a hike. A large number of buses allows you to quickly and inexpensively get from Simferopol airport to any part of Crimea. After the construction of the railway line is completed, logistics promises to become even easier and cheaper. The mountains are not high and, as a rule, there are no questions about acclimatization here. It must be remembered that Crimea is an arid region, all tourist sites are somehow tied to water sources, and the route is built from source to source. The best time to plan a route is during the off-season: April - May, or September - early October. During this period, the weather is stably warm, the heat is not so strong, and the tourist season either did not have time to start, or has already ended. Plane and train tickets at this time are also the most affordable.

For some people, the mountains are a mystery, and the fact that most people cannot resist the greatness of the mountain peaks is still inexplicable and go to conquer them. Such a pastime is considered tourism and is called mountain tourism. Nowadays it is a real sports leisure, gaining more and more popularity every day.

History

Mountain tourism dates back to 1786, when one of the most famous mountain peaks of Mont Blanc was conquered. But only a hundred years later, the first mountain club was founded on the territory of the Russian Empire, whose members were engaged in drawing up successful mountain routes, exploring unknown peaks and, of course, campaigning for their institution. A big surge in the popularity of mountain tourism came in the Soviet era, when young people actively advocated a healthy lifestyle. It was the young people of that time who began to gather whole camps and went to the mountains, trying to educate and organize a new younger generation.

What is mountain tourism

The concept of "mountain tourism" is acceptable only if the walking tour takes place at an altitude of 2500m above the sea level. In any other situation, tourism is not recognized as mountain tourism. Despite the fact that many go to the mountains in order to see the pristine beauty of nature and enjoy the beauties of the surrounding world from a bird's eye view, not everyone knows how treacherous and extremely dangerous mountains are. That is why for mountain tourism you need to have not only desire, but physical training, since mountain travel can be safely called extreme.

Mountain tourism is strictly prohibited for people who suffer from heart and vascular diseases, have chronic nasopharyngeal disease, suffer a severe infectious disease and have pathological processes of the endocrine system.

Types of mountain tourism

There are several types of mountain tourism, which differ in weather conditions, the season of the year and even the landscape.

Mountaineering

The highest form of skill in mountain tourism is mountaineering. This is not only a kind of sports recreation, but also a real art that allows you to overcome the highest and inaccessible mountain peaks. Mountaineering requires not only physical fitness, but also other equally important knowledge.

Despite the fact that mountaineering, as a kind of mountain tourism, is an extremely risky activity, more and more people want to do it, and therefore in modern times such a pastime is very popular. This kind of extreme rest consists in overcoming obstacles to ascend to the highest point of the summit. Often for this, tourists choose the summer, since it is in this season of the year that the goal can be overcome most easily.

We have long been going to raise the topic of accidents in mountaineering in articles. So that these are reflections based on personal experience, with an analysis of cases from life and conclusions that beginners (and even continuing) climbers and mountain tourists can use and, perhaps, somewhere to avoid other people's mistakes. The Novosibirsk mountaineer, MS in mountaineering, three-time champion of Russia Alexander Parfyonov shares his experience.

Once, when I was still studying at the institute, I came across my thesis "Analysis of statistics of aviation accidents in third-generation aircraft." It would seem, what does this have to do with the topic of our conversation with you: here about the mountains, and there about the planes, the mountains are solid, they walk in every sense (sometimes they even go overhanging), and planes fly through the air and do not understand what they hold on to. In that article, there was a detailed study of plane crashes and their causes by factors, and then they knew how to investigate - in order to clarify the circumstances, sometimes it was necessary to excavate at the crash site up to 17 meters deep! So, most of all I was struck by one figure in that work: the share of accidents caused by the human factor is 0.97. What does it mean? Only that in 97 out of 100 air crashes it is the people themselves who are to blame, not the technology - people who prepare the plane for flight, dispatchers (for civil aviation), pilots. And only in 3% of cases "iron" is to blame, which is also made by people.

For mountains, echoing this classification, I would divide the causes of accidents (accidents, catastrophes) into objective and subjective. Objective factors include those factors that can be described by the literary expression “mountain life”: rockfalls, avalanches, ice falls, earthquakes, etc. To subjective - those that depend on the decisions and actions of a person. This classification is very conditional, because you can not go on an avalanche slope, not walk along a rocky ridge and even stay at home. But it will be easier for us.

In this article, we will consider mainly subjective factors, and touch on objective ones only in passing.

Inconsistency of the athlete's real, imagined and required level of the chosen route or simply grief

The first and, perhaps, the most common factor now. If we take the statistics of accidents and accidents in the mountains, the lion's share will fall on non-sports tourism and mountaineering. These are people massively besieging Everest, Elbrus, Lenin, Belukha.

From the list of Russians and foreigners who died in the mountains on the territory of Russia for 2017, given at RISK-e, 10 out of 19 people climbed independently, not being a sports tourist group or participants in an alpine event, 5 of them during climbing Elbrus or in its vicinity.

Let's rewind 10 years ago. The statistics are almost the same (risk.u, with reference to Sergei Shibaev): 18 dead, of which at least 10 were not participants in sports hikes or ascents within the framework of alpine events, two of them on Elbrus, one on Belukha. Seeming simplicity beckons.

The fact is that in mountaineering and mountain tourism there is quite a Darwinian selection system. As the category requirements are fulfilled, the athlete develops skills, experience, and weak people, not ready physically or mentally, are eliminated at all stages, starting with 1B and never ending. There is always a mountain that Ivan Ivanovich and Peter Petrovich can go, go and return, but Stepan Stepanich - no, it will be cool!

Of course, the rank requirements in mountaineering and tourism are very subjective: you can easily close the master of sports in Zhumar in either sport (there are no masters in tourism now, only CCM), in simple areas, fulfilling the minimum rank requirements moving from cell to cell. But this selection never stops: even after completing the master, your sports future depends on potential partners, on the team, because you will be called to the mountains not for your beautiful eyes, but for your endurance, reliability, and the ability to work in a team. During sports development, you gain experience, all the necessary technical skills, physical fitness, and, besides, what is important, you get acquainted with the moral principles of "comrades in arms". These are absolute truths that teach collective survival in the mountains - to unquestioningly obey the leader of the group, to act as a group as a single organism, putting in the background their "wishes" and ambitions, to equally load each of the participants. You can't blame everything on one, even the strongest member of the team, and watch, and climb, and trail - everything is equal.

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