Cognitive routes around the native land: theory, methodology, practice
Turbaza im. Mokrousova, Sevastopol, North Side, Uchkuevka. Cottages and plywood houses with and without amenities. Wonderful sandy beach. (photo, description, prices) Tourist base "Eagle zalet", Bakhchisaray district, with. Falcon. Tel. 6 44 92. Has the fame of the "Capital of the Mountainous Crimea". In addition to the main building, which is especially remarkable for the off-season, it has retained all the strengths of the classic Soviet camp site, including inexpensive wooden houses, places for setting up tents, sheds for packing backpacks and group meetings, a dance floor, and more. She escaped ruin. It's just some kind of time machine! :). (photo, description, prices) Tourist base "Prival", Bakhchisarai, above the Khan's palace (Tel. 4 78 46). Comfortable enough, but there are also inexpensive rooms, as well as houses without amenities. Saturated territory with terraces, gazebos and a fantastic view of the demonic rocks of Suvlu-kai. There is a "Paradise Uglok" with a swimming pool. (photo, description, prices). The branch of the tourist center "U Lukomorya" (Tel. 9 25 33) is located in the village. Sandy Bakhchisarai region. So these two establishments are completely themselves managed with the classical scheme of organizing tourism according to the "mountains + sea" system.
Turstoyanka is located near the village of Khadzhi-Sala. ualet, spring, places for tents. Nearby there is a pond, a shop, several restaurants with Tatar cuisine. The disadvantage is that there is practically no fuel (that is, firewood). It is advisable to have a gas burner with you. You can make radial exits to Mangup-Kale, to the Chelter monastery, to the Syuyren fortress, to the cave city of Eski-Kermen. Additional information, as well as seat reservations, can be made through the website of the SNP-Crimea
At the entrance to the Adym-Chokrak valley southeast of Mangup, next to the Istoki Spring tract, two small ponds, next to a hunting cordon.
Near Peredovoe Highway - Golubinka Located on a steep slope, a spring, three small “plateaus” for tents.
Upper reaches of the Fifth Balka. A spring, small ponds, spacious clearings for setting up tents.
Located 40 minutes from the cave city of Chufut-Kale. There is a toilet and a spring.
Crimea is a popular seaside resort located in the southwest of Russia. Rest in Crimea attracts people thanks to the warm sea, beautiful mountains and interesting architecture. Crimea is washed by two seas: the Black and the Azov. Most of the resorts are located on the southern coast, the climate of which is comparable to the Cote d'Azur.
Crimea - history of the name of the peninsula
There are several versions of the origin of the name of the peninsula. From Turkic “Crimea” is translated as “moat”. Another version says that the name comes from the city of Kyrym, the former residence of the Golden Horde governor and became popular in the 13th century.
2pictureThis name was not the first for the peninsula - others are known in history: Tavrika is the ancient name of the peninsula, derived from the Taurian tribe that previously inhabited these places. Tavria is a name that came into use in the 15th century. Taurida - came into use since 1783, when the peninsula became part of the Russian Empire.
Also, Crimea in different years was identified with Cimmeria and Lesser Scythia. During the years of Soviet power, the Crimean region existed, after Ukraine gained independence - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and since 2014, the Republic of Crimea has appeared as part of Russia. (lake in the interfluve) Geographical position of Crimea
Crimea is located in Eurasia, in the part of the world Europe. n is located from the 0 meridian to the east, from the equator to the north.
Crimea lies between the 44th and 46th parallel and the 32nd and 37th meridian.
Crimea is a peninsula. n separates the Black Sea from the Azov Sea. the mainland Crimea is connected by a narrow isthmus.
From the north, east and south, Crimea is washed by the Black Sea, and from the north-west by the Azov Sea.
By the nature of the relief, it is divided into plains, hilly plains and mountains.
The highest point of Crimea is the Roman-Kosh peak, the height of which is 1545 m.
Tourism in Crimea is an important branch of the economy of the Republic of Crimea.
The beginning of the development of Crimea as a resort dates back to the second half of the 19th century. With the improvement of transport links, it became easier for residents of the Central Provinces of the Russian Empire to get to the shore of the healing sea for rest and treatment. It was during this period that the Crimea gained fame as a priority place for summer holidays for the Russian imperial family . At the turn of the century, summer residences of exceptional beauty and architectural diversity were built: summer cottages, villas and palaces. Many of them have survived in Crimea to this day, giving a touch of mysterious antiquity to the appearance of Crimean cities.
A new, massive stage in the history of Crimean tourism is associated with Lenin's decrees; Crimea becomes the "All-Union health resort", receiving hundreds of thousands of tourists. A record number of tourists visited Crimea in 1988 - 8.3 million people.
After 1991, resort specialization has changed dramatically, now beach and active recreation is preferred to spa treatment. Unorganized tourists significantly outnumber those in sanatoriums. Under the conditions of independent Ukraine, Crimea became an object of mainly domestic tourism (the share of Ukrainian tourists reached its peak in 2009 and amounted to 74%) . During these years, the level of shadowization of the autonomy's tourism economy increased, where the private sector came out on top, and structured sanatorium-resort recreation gave way to unorganized beach tourism.
The events of 2014 led to new changes in the tourism industry of the peninsula .
Tourism and recreation 
Already in the 1950s, Crimea became an "all-Union health resort" and a real resort mecca. In Soviet times, several directions of tourism were developed on the peninsula at once: hiking, car and bicycle tourism, children's recreation and climatic treatment .
In Crimea, you can find many rest houses, sanatoriums (for example, the Utyos Sanatorium), boarding houses, camps (for example, Artek), various hotels from the simplest to five-star. The most popular holiday destinations are Yalta and Alushta  together with the entire southern coast of Crimea (SCC), Feodosia, Sudak, Evpatoria. Sevastopol is one of the most interesting excursion places, as this city has repeatedly participated in various wars.
Regional development data:
In the title picture: 1 - compacted clays and sandstones of the Taurida series; 2 - Upper Jurassic limestones; 3 - limestones, marls and clays of the Cretaceous and Paleogene systems; 4 - Paleozoic metamorphic schists; 5 - an array of igneous deep rocks; 6 - gap.
Geology is the science that studies the upper part of our planet - the earth's crust. Nowadays geology includes a number of sciences - mineralogy, petrography, tectonics, paleontology, historical geology, the study of minerals, etc. The geological structure of the Crimea has been well studied, primarily in the course of student educational practices and scientific expeditions. There is an extensive network of geological and mineralogical natural monuments, wildlife sanctuaries and even reserves. Hundreds of Crimean sights are interesting precisely because they reveal the most ancient stages of the development of the earth's crust and show their relationship with ancient civilizations, the early stages of human history. Therefore, special geological and natural history excursions for tourists and mineralogical souvenirs are also popular. Tourists in Crimea, having admired a beautiful stone, a deep gorge, an intricate labyrinth of caves, can understand the essence of the phenomena, have understood what is hidden behind these natural formations. Therefore, basic geological information is needed, without the knowledge of which it is impossible to go on excursions. These are the properties and origin of rocks, the conditions of their occurrence and geological chronology.
The surface of the Earth is composed of various rocks, which at first glance seem solid and unchanging. Rocks are formed and destroyed in various ways as a result of diverse geological processes.
What are rocks? In earth science, rocks are called the various hard, soft, loose and loose masses that have arisen as a result of natural processes, from which the earth's crust is built (the upper shell of the globe is on average 60 km thick). Thus, hard granites and limestones, plastic clays and loose sands, despite different physical properties, are all rocks.
Rocks are mainly composed of minerals - natural chemical compounds. The world of minerals is very rich. Science knows about 2500 types of minerals, but among them only a few dozen are widespread, the rest are rare. Rocks and ore veins are composed of minerals. The widespread minerals include quartz, feldspars, micas, calcite, etc.
Rocks, like other bodies in nature, have their own history. They arise, develop and ultimately break down and turn into other substances, which will then be included in the composition of new rocks. Petrography studies the properties of rocks, their origin and complex transformations.
Rocks tell about the history of the Earth at a time when there was no man yet, about fluctuations of land and sea, about climate changes, indicate where and what minerals should be looked for.
Since the middle of the Neogene period, land appeared on the site of the Mountainous Crimea, which later was never flooded by the sea. Moreover, the sea-leveled surface was raised by about 1000 m. This is the level of the flat-topped peaks of the Main ridge - the yayl. The arch uplift of the Mountainous Crimea led to a sharp increase in the destructive activity of rivers and the formation of a modern river network. From the high cliffs of the Main Ridge, rocks broke off and slid down the steep slope of the South Coast to the sea.
In the last stage of the Earth's history - the Quaternary period - the Caucasus and Carpathian mountain ranges adjacent to the Crimea were covered with glaciers (in the Caucasus, they "survived" to this day in reduced sizes). A solid shell of ice covered the vast plains of the northern and temperate latitudes in the northern hemisphere.
In Crimea, neither in the mountains nor in the foothills, clear signs of glacier activity were found in the form of trough-shaped valleys or accumulations of rock fragments of different sizes without traces of running water treatment. However, indirect data indicate Quaternary glaciation in the Crimea. This is evidenced, for example, by accumulations of brown clay with fragments of sandstone and quartz pebbles in the chatyrdag sinkholes, a material completely alien to yayls. But its appearance is easy to explain, considering that this foreign material was brought by glaciers from the south, sliding down the slope from a vast mountainous country, most of which geologically recently sank under the waters of the Black Sea. The accumulation of limestone boulders in the depression on the northern slope of Chatyrdag is probably also left by the glacier.
It is possible that Quaternary pebbles on the Evpatoria coast of the Black Sea are associated with glaciers. A huge mass of rough and unsorted pebbles and blocks of Upper Jurassic limestone was carried to the foothill plain by streams of glacial waters flowing down from the northern slope of the Crimean mountains.
Are you tired of the urban environment and not inspired by the idea of an inactive beach vacation? Do you want not just to get impressions, but to take your breath away? Then ecological tourism in Crimea is your dream.
Ecotourism is an active visit to places that are not affected by human activities. This is tourism with responsibility towards nature, towards local cultural values. The ability to observe and study the nature and customs of the local population without interfering in the course of events.
The human need for knowledge and conservation of nature is fully able to satisfy "green" tourism in Crimea, where the nature reserve fund occupies 5% of the territory. A large number of nature reserves and reserves, botanical gardens and natural monuments of wildlife give the Crimean peninsula the right to be called a unique place for ecotourism.
The Karadag mountain range, located in the Koktebel region, got its name in antiquity due to the pile-up of stone blocks from the frozen lava of two extinct volcanoes. The peculiar relief of unique rocks, amazing gorges and beautiful bays of Karadag is able to awaken in a person an awareness of the greatness of nature. Tourists are offered a choice of several trails in the Karadag nature reserve, which is closed from free visits. The abundance of relict plants that do not grow anywhere else, the silent beauty of the meadows and the Golden Gate rising from the sea will be a pleasant addition to your trip to the Karadag mountains. You can also see the Karadag Reserve and its attractiveness.
Wherever the main place of your stay is, it is certainly worth seeing the Grand Canyon in the Bakhchisarai region with your own eyes. The giant canyon was formed at least two million years ago and is, without exaggeration, the crown of the Crimean nature. Eco excursions are offered in several options. This is either a superficial view of the Grand Canyon with swimming in Lake Kara-Gol, in the "Bath of Youth"; or walk along a narrow canyon corridor, which is no more than two meters wide. The immensity of what he saw will shock even a skeptic.
Mount Ayu-Dag is shaped like a huge bear that drinks water from the sea. According to scientists, this is a failed volcano, in which limestone rocks did not allow magma to break through to the surface. The trail to the mountain passes through reserved picturesque places, landscapes that change as you ascend to the top. The main prizes are waiting for tourists at the top. These are the ruins of an ancient temple and stunning views of the Black Sea coast.
Near Sevastopol are the ruins of the capital of the medieval principality of Theodoro, the powerful fortress city of Mangupa. You will see the ruins of a citadel, temples and many caves in which the inhabitants of Mangup lived and performed rituals. The location of this city on a massive mountain pillar with a plateau and four headlands extending to the north offers unique views for hikers on a walking tour. On the southern side of Mangul-Kale, a steep cliff opens up panoramic views of the Crimean mountains. Isotericists consider this fortress a place of power. There is also a Legend about a daring Cossack and a greedy Turk from the Mangup fortress.
If you climb the rather steep slope of Mount Demerdzhi, you will first see a stunning panorama of the valley and the city of Alushta. Moving on, you will find yourself in the valley of ghosts. From all sides you will be surrounded by bizarre stone sculptures. This is a matter of the wind, which has polished and processed these fabulous figures over many millennia. There is an interesting legend Demerdzhi or Mount "Blacksmith".
This is not even a sport, but rather a way to escape from the hustle and bustle of everyday life and test yourself and your friends for strength!
List and short description of the most attractive countries for inexpensive, mountain travel. Prices for air tickets, accommodation, food. Attractions in the area.