Mountain tourism is one of the types of sports tourism. In this concept, many unite different types of outdoor activities: rafting on mountain rivers, rock climbing, ecological tourism - expedition trips to get acquainted with the animal and plant world, study of rocks. However, in the general case, mountain tourism is overcoming routes passing in mountainous terrain at an altitude of more than 3000 m above sea level.
Parameters by which the difficulty of the mountain route is determined - the length of the path in kilometers, the duration in days and the difficulty of the passes. There are 6 categories of difficulty, and within one category the routes can also be very different and require different levels of training.
For hikes of low difficulty, tourists need good physical shape and special hiking clothes, for extreme routes you need professional skills and special equipment.
Many people confuse it with mountaineering. Of course, they have a lot in common, but it cannot be said that they are one and the same. Therefore, let's figure out what are the features of mountain tourism, how it differs from mountaineering and in which countries it is most popular.
The peculiarity of mountain tourism is the movement of a group of people in a mountainous area along a certain, pre-compiled route. Typically, such trips are carried out at significant altitudes above sea level. This is a rather difficult load on all muscle groups, since mountain tourists are not looking for easy ways, and obstacles are encountered regularly.
Not only do you need to be able to overcome passes, traverses of peaks, but also make radial ascents. One of the features of mountain tourism is that long-distance obstacles are not evaluated. Therefore, if you just cross a mountain river, it will not count.
For an uncomplicated hike, the very minimum of special equipment and clothing may come in handy. Literally hiking clothes, special footwear, protective outerwear from the weather, a tent, a sleeping bag.
Technological progress does not bypass active tourism, and hikers can choose clothes in company stores that are indispensable for temporary living in nature: they are breathable, but wind and moisture resistant T-shirts, jackets, hats, gloves. For particularly harsh conditions, you can purchase what is called a phantom mask - or a special hat that covers the entire head and has slits for the eyes, usually used in conjunction with protective climbing goggles. But this is in winter, in summer, ordinary sports sunglasses will do.
The country has great travel opportunities. This is facilitated by a variety of natural conditions. Tourism today has become one of the most popular types of recreation. The attractiveness of such a pastime is the ability to combine entertainment and educational components. In addition, this leisure contributes to active muscle development, hardening and improvement of people of any age.
A short-term or long-term trip (travel) to a place or country other than the territory of permanent residence for a period of more than a day (up to two to three months) within 1 year, or with an overnight stay (more than one) is called tourism. It can be: • entertaining; • wellness; • sports; • guest; • religious; • business; • for recreation; • educational and others.
A person or group of people who travels like this is called a tourist.
The main type of tourism is hiking. This is the movement of a team of like-minded people or one person along a given route within an agreed period of time. Such a trip can have a sports, educational, recreational or other purpose. Achievement of the end point depends on the pre-campaign preparation, technical and tactical skill and safety at each stage.
Hiking is a promising type of tourism that can meet the needs of people seeking an active lifestyle.
Massive forms of tourism activities are:
• pedestrian; • ski; • mountain; • water; • speleological; • combined.
Mountain nature differs from flat one. The originality of the mountains is in their pronounced vertical climatic zonation, characterized by the mismatch of signs for the summer season, therefore, travelers will find a variety of unique impressions.
The main obstacle to movement in the highlands is bad weather and variability of the relief. They are also the reason for the dangerous phenomena for tourists. Residents who have not previously climbed the mountains require a certain adaptation or acclimatization in new conditions. First of all, the body adapts to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the air. This will take about 5 days. During this time, a feeling of fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite and a feeling of lack of sleep, which disappears after sleep and rest, rolls over the participants of the trip.
If unpleasant manifestations persist, and with a further rise in altitude, pain in the head, nausea (up to vomiting) or chills appear, then this means too quickly overcoming the distance in height, and the occurrence of such symptoms is associated with the manifestation of altitude sickness ... A person should return several hundred meters - below the level of unpleasant sensations. In this case, the unpleasant phenomena go away. The climb can be resumed after 24 hours.
The acclimatization process is better and faster if the person is active. Therefore, the feeling of the first high-altitude malaise is not a reason to stop moving, on the contrary, you should convince yourself to continue the ascent, and actively participate in the life of the camp at a halt. If altitude sickness manifests itself too strongly, then the tourist is allowed to rest passively. He was prescribed warm sweet tea, sour juice, vitamin C, and for a headache, taking citramone or aeron.
Hiking is a set of unique factors capable of comprehensively training the human body. In the mountainous environment, protective functions are activated, and the climber mobilizes his own hidden reserves. It is not surprising that upon returning to the plain, the tourist feels composure and lightness for a long time.
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