Mountain bikes from A to Z

Mountain bikes from A to Z

Cycling tourism is one of the cheapest and most exciting types of tourism. To take advantage of this type of travel, you need not only a bicycle, but also good physical fitness.

The history of the bike

According to some sources, the first mentions of human movement on structures with wheels date back to the 15th century. But the development of the bicycle as a form of transport began only in the 19th century.

This is how someone Ludwig Dries designed a steerable front wheel for his scooter. Its length was 2.4 meters, and the wheels were 30 inches. On such a scooter, he covered 100 kilometers in almost 7 hours. Somewhat later, Pierre Michaud, in 1860, installed two pedals on the front wheels of the scooter, and two years later such scooters began to be mass-produced, and they get their name - a bicycle. As soon as a bicycle appeared, it immediately begins to undergo various reconstructions and changes. A frame made of tubes appears, rubber is put on the wheels.

Beginning in 1870, a certain Hillman began producing and selling the first all-metal bicycles with high wheels. Such a wheel was twice the size of a modern bicycle. The first low chain-driven bicycle appeared in 1885 and was called the "rover", and its weight was 20 kilograms. In 1888, after the invention of tires that were filled with air, the true heyday of the two-wheeled bicycle began.

In 1950, the famous Italian cyclist Tullio Campagnolo invented the derailleur, which is used in this form on most modern bicycles today.

Improvement and reconstruction of the bicycle continues in the twentieth century. So in 1974 they began to produce bicycles from titanium, and from 1975 - from carbon fiber. 1983 was marked by the invention of the cycling computer, and in the early 1990s, the spread of the index gearshift system began.

Types of bicycles

Modern bicycle manufacturers are producing the following range of bicycles.

Road bike. This bike is designed to move at high speeds on high quality asphalt. These bicycles set records in multi-day cycling races such as the Tour de France, Giro di Italia, Waelta, as well as the Olympic Games. When developing the design of such a bicycle, manufacturers optimize first of all the speed characteristics. The cost of such bicycles is quite high, since they are intended for high-class professionals, and amounts to about 10-20 thousand US dollars. The cost of bicycles for beginner cyclists is somewhere around $ 300, and for improved designs up to $ 1000 and more.

MTB (mountain bike). These bicycles are somewhat different. So they have a slightly smaller wheel diameter, in contrast to the road. The frame of such a bicycle is made with a slightly increased strength. Since mountain bikes have to be operated in rather difficult road conditions, innovations such as hydraulic brakes and suspension forks were created specifically for mountain bikes.

Extreme vacation in Moscow and Moscow region 2020

Tuesday March

Great Divide Mountain Bike Route Guide

I have long wanted to translate several chapters from the Great Divide Mountain Bike Route by Michael McCoy.

Cycling the Great Divide 2nd Edition: From Canada to Mexico on North America's Premier Long Distance Mountain Bike Route

I think this information is very interesting and useful in terms of outlook.


The Mountain Bike Route along the Great Divide was developed and mapped from 1995 to 1997 by a dedicated team. The team's mentor was Gary McFadan, then executive director of the Adventure Cycling Association. Gary first helped define the ideology and concept of the route, and then gave me, as a team leader, an amazing level of support and freedom in terms of when and in what order to get the job done. I express my gratitude and respect to him for this. But before Gary could give me the go-ahead, he had to convince the board of directors of the Adventure Cycling Association that the development of the route was worth funding.

In June 2010, Matthew Cohn from Helena, Montana, who served on the board of directors for a long time, wrote to me about this difficult process: “Mac, the directors then could not risk spending the meager resources of the association on the development of this route ... It took two or three meetings to convince all members of the council to believe in you. In that era, it was risky to spend money on the development of an off-road route. ” Obviously, a huge thank you goes to all those wonderful people on the board. And the route would not have been realized without the “Pioneers” - members of the association and people from outside, who sponsored the interesting segments of the route in the ratio of $ 100 per 1 km. The list of these Pioneers is, unfortunately - and in fact fortunately - too long to list. And even more so this list continues to grow as new Pathfinders join Adventure Cycling in supporting and developing the Great Divide Route.

Seattle-based Recreation Equipment (REI) was the largest sponsor of the route. An impressive $ 40,000 has come through their grant program. For such a generosity, they are entitled to more than just thanks. Flanagan Motors of Missoula, Montana, donated a three-year Jeep Cherokee. Without this gesture, the cost of exploring the route would have been significantly higher. The U. Forest Service and the Bureau of Land Management provided invaluable assistance and support in the design and exploration of the route. Especially the Missoula Regional Forest Service staff; Ray Hanson of the Western Wyoming Bureau; and Forest Service Rangers en route to Idaho, Colorado and New Mexico. Thanks to everyone else who helped, including Travel Montana employee Stephen Elkinton, National Park Service employee in Washington DC; Bob Lily of Durango, Colorado Forest Service; Gary Nichols, Colorado Park County Tourism Authority. I also thank people and organizations that are not related to government services, but provided assistance and advice: 817th Gul Scout Squad in Whitehall, Montana, under the leadership of Judy Storm; John Gatchell of the Wild Montana Association; Bill Haris of the Colorado Plateau Mountain Bike Association; Michael Huton of Timberline Cycling Tours; Andrew Miller of Fraser Valley Trails Partnership, Colorado; Philip Novotny from B. Trailers; Martha Roskowski from Salida, Colorado; and Ted Steadman from Denver. Some of these individuals no longer live in these cities.

Adventure Cycling employee Julie Huck and former employee Suzanne Hanol led the first historic trek along the Great Divide Trail in 1996. To my delight, they brought the first confirmation from the hike: yes, cyclists will have a lot of pleasure on this route. Daniel “Damby” DiAmbrosio, then editor of Adventure Cycling magazine, did an amazing job that resulted in an increase in membership fees for the association and, accordingly, increased funds for the development of the route. At the same time, it is impossible to describe in words the work done by Kladra Majernik - director of the route map production department, Jennifer Milaiko - cartographer, and the rest of the staff of this department who prepared Adventure Cycle maps, and those maps that you will find in this book.

If you dream of an active vacation this summer, the best way to have a good weekend is to go to the Moscow region for an extreme vacation or

How easy it was to choose a bike thirty years ago! For ordinary consumers, they were divided simply by age categories - they bought babies on inflated tires, then the kids mastered the "Shkolnik", a little later - "Eaglet" and, finally, everyone switched to "adults", in the usual or "ladies'" version. Some variety was introduced by folding models or touring bicycles, which, however, did not differ much from the usual ones - "hand" brakes and a small range of gear shifting.

Now the variety of assortment of bicycle shops is simply amazing! A huge number of models of a wide variety of categories are presented, differing in their purpose and operating conditions. Mountain bikes, mountain bikes, or MTB for short, are especially popular.

Important question: how to choose a mountain bike suitable for a man on your own

The versatility of mountain two-wheeled iron horses has been proven by many professional riders. After all, it is no secret that this type of machine is recommended to be purchased by beginners who have not really decided what is more important for them: cross-country ability along forest paths or overcoming high-speed asphalt sections.

The topic of how to choose a mountain bike for a man is often not interested in those who like professional disciplines: cross-country, freeride, downhill, trial, dirt jumping. Among the fans of this type of bikes, the largest percentage falls on cyclists, and all because their favorite hardtail has:

  • excellent driving performance on rough terrain;
  • high durability, which allows you to confidently hang a trunk and backpack-pants on it, adding up to 20-25 kg additional load;
  • acceptable coasting on road sections;
  • excellent hill climbing ability due to a large number of speeds.

You should search for a suitable model after determining the desired type of mountain bike by the type of suspension:

  • Hardtail (rigid frame + shock absorbing front fork). The most versatile and affordable type of two-wheeled vehicles. Suitable for cross-country, hiking, city traffic and park riding.
  • Full suspension (both wheels are equipped with shock absorption). Extremely expensive and designed for high speed travel over difficult rough terrain. Often used exclusively for professional purposes: cross-country and downhill.
  • Rigid (rigid frame and fork). Designed for professional use in areas such as trial and dirt jumping. Rarely rigid models are found among ordinary walking MTV models of the budget segment.

Structurally, the bicycle consists of a frame and bicycle components fixed to it. As you learn the basics of choosing the right mountain bike, it's helpful to know what raw materials are used to make frame structures:

  • regular steel;
  • chrome-molybdenum steels;
  • aluminum alloys;
  • titanium;
  • carbon fiber.

Steel frames are only found on entry-level bikes. The only drawback is the high weight. The advantage is excellent damping properties.

At the moment, a huge number of varieties of bicycles are produced, which are difficult for a layman to understand, and all the more difficult it is to choose the best bike for yourself.

The situation is complicated by the fact that no classification will be complete and unambiguous - in the pursuit of additional profit, manufacturers almost every year come up with new classes of bicycles, "pushing" them between the existing ones. Therefore, depending on the details of the classification, one and the same bike may fall into several categories at the same time, or vice versa - not strictly belong to any of them.

The most common division of bicycles is road and off-road.


Road bikes

Designed for movement primarily on asphalt. They are characterized by the absence of a suspension fork (it is simply not needed on asphalt) [1], a smooth tread pattern of the tires, and asphalt transmission ratios.


These are relatively heavy and slow (or very expensive) bikes, usually with trunks, full fenders, planetary transmission, and a fairly comfortable fit.

  • A road bike is a classic simple utilitarian model of a bicycle, the most famous representative is Soviet Ukraine.
    • Cargo bike - specially adapted for transporting large loads, has a special frame design with integrated heavy-duty luggage racks.
    • A city bike (city bike) is a heavy and comfortable utility vehicle. Typically equipped with a puffy spring-loaded saddle for a vertical fit, planetary hub, rack, full fenders and electrical equipment, sometimes hub dynamo. Has low requirements for configuration and maintenance. Ideal for short city trips.
    • Commuter is a light and fast city bike with a rigid fork and road tires, wheels can be 26 "(rare) or 28". It can differ from a simple road bike with a better drive and a greater focus on speed.
  • A cruiser (rastabike) is an original bike with an extended fit, long fork reach and "pot-bellied" wheels (often of different diameters). Designed for the owner's self-expression and attracting the attention of others. It has mediocre performance in terms of speed and controllability.
  • A folding bicycle is a bicycle with a special frame design (often of other units), characterized by the ability to quickly fold for carrying. As a rule, it has small wheels for more compactness when folded, in such bicycles speed, comfort and handling are sacrificed for transformability. The most prominent representative is Strida. There are all kinds of domestic analogues - Kama. However, there are models of folding bicycles (for example, from Dahon), which practically do not differ in anything, except for the price, from full-fledged mountain or road bicycles.


The purchase of this vehicle should be approached carefully. MTB became popular in the 90s, and then the question arose which company is better. With the emergence of new companies, the choice has become even greater, it is more difficult to decide on such a variety. What to look for among a dozen brands and how not to make a mistake when buying - we analyze in our article with a rating of the best mountain bike manufacturers.

This is not just an entertaining form of transport - for many athletes, an iron friend becomes a companion for many years. Therefore, it is important to choose the brand that will be most suitable. A professional will not do what is convenient for a beginner.

It is important to choose based on the purpose, characteristics and features of the model and its owner. And it is also worth studying the largest manufacturers, the quality and reliability of which have been tested by more than one person. Among them there are Russian brands that are not inferior in characteristics to foreign ones. With the recommendations in the "Tovariki" blog, it will not be difficult to make a choice.

TOP of the best mountain bikes

When buying a bike from any of these companies, you can be sure that the device will last a long time and in any weather conditions.

It is important to consider all the characteristics of the model before purchasing. Make sure that the saddle is as comfortable as possible, and that your feet reach the ground when the bike is stationary. The back should not be humped, the knees should not rise high when moving. Compliance with these rules will prevent injuries from falling and will provide comfort while driving.

What characteristics need to be considered

Foreign companies are increasing the cost because of the name and delivery to other countries. The Russian brands Forward and Stels are in no way inferior in quality, but their price is much lower.

Any bike can be easily divided into its component parts - frame, fork, mechanics and wheels. Familiarize yourself with the structure before deciding what you can save on and what you shouldn't. First you need to examine and check the main elements, and only then the pedals and the seat.

The choice of the skeleton is very responsible, because it is easier to buy a new one than to replace this part.

What to rely on when choosing:

  • geometry;
  • material;
  • size.

Most often made of aluminum and carbon. The second is more expensive, but lighter - it allows you to accelerate faster.

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