Insurance, mountaineering - mountaineering

Insurance, mountaineering - mountaineering

★ Insurance (mountaineering)

Insurance in mountaineering - a set of equipment for mountaineering rock climbing, ice climbing and actions of athletes aimed at preventing or minimizing possible dangers from disruptions or destruction of landforms that the athlete is moving.

Insurance in mountaineering and mountain tourism

During the ascent, athletes must overcome a variety of landscapes: snow, firn, ice, rocks, talus and grassy slopes. For each of these types of assistance, there is equipment and car insurance.

The organization of insurance is as follows: to create two or three points of safety of equipment, characteristic of each type of terrain at a short distance from each other. in this case, all points must be independent of each other. carabiners connect a loop from a belt or rope with a diameter of at least 8 mm. organizations in this way are called stations. while near the station, participants must be attached to the station, namely to a rope connecting the points with a lanyard. all additional safety devices must be secured to the station.

Insurance is on the rocks

The following equipment is often used to organize a station:

  • The lintel can be described as "rocky analogue of the dowel". is considered the most reliable equipment for organizing a station. the first hammer hole is made into which a soft metal fork, expansion anchor or resin glue is inserted. then a hook or bolt is inserted into one hole and in the case of using resin, a hook or bolt that holds the eye is twisted or hammered. the belay is attached to a hook or hole in the eyelet. it is installed correctly, the lintel is very reliable, its breaking load: 2. -5T, which often exceeds the strength of the rock or rope. jumpers are installed as a reliable anchor for long-term use. Advantages - Reliability, can be installed on a "mirrored" wall protrudes more than one year. The disadvantages are the complexity of the installation, and the installation takes a lot of time, experience is needed. sometimes the benefits of a jumper become their fault. due to their great reliability, their constant use of the "popular" side, especially near large cities. the load on these lintels in a season can reach 100 or more people per day for decades, which, of course, leads to fatigue and breakdown of the lintels.
  • A friend is a relatively complex mechanical device, in terms of functionality it is an improved analogue of a bookmark.
  • The rock hook is a strip of metal 10 (a Piton is a strip of metal 10) - 20 cm long and 2 - 3 cm wide, with an eyelet for the carabiner hook. blockage in a narrow slot 2 - 4 mm with a hammer. for wider cracks use U hooks with a channel section.
  • The bookmark is made of metal, usually in the form of a trapezoidal prism, sometimes with a hollow hole inside. through a prism, a threaded steel cable into a loop behind a carabiner. the tabs are available in various sizes for slots from 0. to 5 cm wide.

The most reliable are bolts, pins, friends and hooks, other things being equal, less reliable than jumpers. the reliability and applicability of each type of equipment is highly dependent on the specific situation and skills of the kits. Due to this, many people think that bookmarks are more reliable when using the base, at least one of the points should be done using bookmarks or a friend. but the hammered hook often remains in the breed for many decades and is used by many generations of climbers, during the laying "loose", and friends because of their cost, left on the rocks only in case of emergency. it is better to install hooks in narrow slots with smooth walls and bookmarks - in a winding slot, lintels - for smooth walls and as an upper station or an overnight station during multi-day ascents. in addition, there are many other, less common devices produced periodically, new types of equipment.

When driving on rocks, intermediate belay points can be made. If insurance is urgently needed, there is no insurance used "for the stones" - the rope is laid behind the protruding stones with a "snake", that is, so that when it falls, it will catch on the ledge. the more the rope is broken, the easier it will be to keep the falling person with this belay method. you also need to make sure the wire is not connected to "live" rocks - rocks that are easy to move if you place them over your head.

Insurance for mountaineering and mountain tourism Insurance for snow

Insurance in mountaineering - a set of equipment for mountaineering, mountain tourism, rock climbing, ice climbing and the actions of athletes aimed at preventing or minimizing possible hazards from disruptions or destruction of landforms along which the athlete moves.

Contents

Mountaineering and Mountain Tourism Insurance [edit]

During the ascent, athletes have to overcome various terrain areas: snow, firn, ice, rocks, talus and grassy slopes. For each of these types of terrain, there is equipment and belay techniques.

Insurance is organized as follows: two or three belay points are installed (equipment is specific for each type of terrain) at a short distance from each other. Moreover, all points must be independent of each other. Carabiners are connected with a loop of a sling or rope with a diameter of at least 8 mm. The points connected in this way are called a station. Being near the station, the participant of the ascent must be fastened to the station (namely, to the rope connecting the points) with the help of a lanyard. All additional safety devices must also be strapped to the station.

Insurance on the rocks [edit]

The following equipment is most often used to organize the station:

  • bolt - can be described as “rocky analogue of a dowel”. It is considered the most reliable equipment for the organization of the station. First, a hole is made with a rock hammer, into which a soft metal dowel, expansion anchor or adhesive resin is inserted. After that, a hook or bolt is inserted into the same hole (in the case of resin), twisted or hammered, which holds the eyelet. The belay is attached to this hook or eye hole. A properly installed bolt is very reliable, its breaking load is 2. -5t, which often exceeds the strength of a rock or rope. The bolts are installed as a reliable anchor point for long-term use. Advantages - reliability, can be installed on a "mirror" wall, serves for more than one year. Disadvantages - the complexity of the installation, the installation takes a lot of time, experience is required. Sometimes the advantages of bolts become their disadvantages. Due to their high reliability, they are constantly used on "popular" routes, especially near big cities. The load on such bolts per season can reach 100 or more people per day for decades. Which will certainly lead to metal fatigue and bolt destruction.
  • rocky hook - a strip of metal 10-20 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, with an eyelet for a carbine. The hook is driven into narrow slots (2-4 mm) with a hammer. For wider slots, use channel hooks with a channel section;
  • Bookmark - made of metal, usually in the form of a trapezoidal prism, sometimes with a hollow hole inside. A steel cable in the form of a loop (for a carabiner) is threaded through the prism. The bookmarks have different sizes for slots from 0.5 to 5 cm wide;
  • the friend is a relatively complex mechanical device, in terms of functionality it is an improved analogue of the bookmark.

Bolts are the most reliable; tabs, friends and hooks, all other things being equal, are less reliable than bolts. The reliability and applicability of each type of equipment strongly depends on the specific situation and the skills of the installer. In view of this, many consider bookmarks and friends to be more reliable, therefore, when organizing a database, at least one of the points should be made using a bookmark or a friend. However, a hook hammered by a professional often remains in the rock for decades and is used by many generations of climbers, while the bookmarks are "loose", and friends, due to their high cost, are left on the rocks only in emergencies. It is better to install hooks in narrow crevices with smooth walls, bookmarks - in winding crevices, bolts - on smooth walls and as an upper station or an overnight station for multi-day ascents. In addition, there are many other, less common devices, new types of equipment are periodically made.

When moving on rocks, you can make intermediate belay points (from any one element - a friend, a bookmark, a hook). If there is no urgent need for insurance, the “for stones” insurance is used - the rope is laid behind the protruding stones with a “snake”, that is, so that when it falls off it will catch on the ledge. The more bends the rope has, the easier it will be to keep a fallen person with this method of belay. It is also necessary to ensure that the rope does not catch on "live" stones - stones that easily move from their place if a load is applied to them.

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