For climb, you need a good and high-quality equipment. At the same time, clothes for climbing the mountains should not be too heavy, but it should be warm. In this article, we tried to consider the most important nuances of the choice of clothing, since it is due to the correctly selected equipment, you can climb.
There is such an expression - "get sick with the horses, mountains" ... usually it means that people starting to go hiking, they receive so much positive from it that they do not want to stop. Many of these avid tourists want to develop not only the geography of their travels, but also their complexity - they are mounted increasingly complex peaks, routes "not for all", the use of special equipment, adrenaline and sensations inaccessible in other cases.
Many know that mountaineering suggests the climbing of varying degrees of complexity, and that even the simplest climbing for the beginner requires much more serious preparation than most hiking. In this article we will try to deal with the basic principles of selection for climbing and traveling in the mountains. Here are the main questions with which we will deal with: <
For people are not yet very experienced in mountaineering, tops can be divided into several categories - trekking, technical, high. Depending on the relief of the slopes, it is possible to distinguish herbaceous or ground, rock, snow-ice and combined.
Trekking vertices are the most simple and to the mountaineering of the direct relationship do not have. To climb them, you do not need special equipment or special skills. Clothes, footwear and equipment for such mountains are required the same as for regular trekking.
Technical peaks are usually not very significant in height, but they have steep slopes, difficult to overcome relief - rocks, steep snow, ice. Mountain equipment is often used for ascent and descent. Ascents usually wear specialized clothing. The main requirements for clothing for technical mountaineering are minimum weight and packaging volume, the ability to carry out complex movements in it with maximum amplitude, reliable protection from wind and precipitation. Usually, for such routes (in the warm season), special equipment of the pro, light and ultralight categories is used.
Climbing high peaks led to the emergence of a separate direction - high-altitude mountaineering. As a rule, these are mountains with a height of 5000 meters or more, climbing them is associated with the risk of developing altitude sickness due to low pressure and lack of oxygen in the inhaled air. Even in the warm months of the year, climbers are exposed to low temperatures and other vicissitudes of the weather for a long time due to the need for gradual acclimatization to the unusual body and psyche of the high altitude environment. The main requirement for clothing for high-altitude climbing is the maximum level of protection from adverse weather conditions. Clothing should be uncompromisingly warm, lightweight and comfortable. Moisture protection at high altitudes is secondary, since precipitation here, even in summer, falls mainly in the form of snow. Choosing the things you need to climb high mountains requires an understanding of the fact that clothing for climbing Elbrus and clothing for climbing Everest are not the same thing.
How and where to buy climbing clothes? First. You need a list! It hardly makes sense to buy clothes in the mountains "in general". It is most convenient to do this for a specific project. For the next one, you will need to buy only some missing things, or maybe nothing. So it will be especially difficult only at the beginning - climbing clothes are usually high-tech and very expensive. And the more difficult and higher the mountains are, the more expensive it is. So prepare your list. The easiest way is if you go to the mountains with a club, for example, Couloir. In the description of the program, as a rule, there is a list of clothes (and equipment) you need, there is also an opportunity to ask clarifying questions to the program manager online. With this list, your best bet is to head over to a good outfit center website and see what they have. If the things you need are in stock, be patient and go measure. You need to measure carefully, very carefully. This is why I do not recommend that beginners buy hiking and climbing clothes and shoes online. An additional advantage of buying in a specialized center is the availability of competent and experienced consultants there. As a rule, the entire staff of the store is engaged in extreme sports, and the advice in most cases turns out to be really useful. If it seems to you that the prices in such stores are somewhat overpriced, then remember that Couloir customers in many of them are entitled to a discount! However, you should not rely on the websites and experience of consultants for everything. After all, a person is a subjective being by nature and it is difficult to expect that an unknown seller, even an expert in his field, will be able to choose the perfect set of clothes just for you, because we all endure heat and cold, humidity and wind in different ways, we have our own habits and preferences. Therefore, now we will consider the basic rules, thanks to which it will be easier for you to communicate with consultants and choose the right things just for you.
Mining LEGO clothes
There are some basic guidelines for choosing clothing for climbing and challenging hikes. The principle of base layers assumes a certain specialization of clothing. Each layer of clothing has its own function and is used for specific conditions. It is very important to feel what kind of clothes to wear for the given weather conditions. This is difficult to achieve without significant experience. Therefore, it is extremely useful when the group has an experienced guide or participant who can suggest the best, in his opinion, composition of clothes for you. Over time, personal experience will allow you to choose clothes competently and independently.
The principle of combining clothes calls for choosing your set in such a way that, if necessary, you can wear almost all your clothes in the maximum number of combinations - up to a situation when very cold weather will force you to put on all your clothes at the same time. In order for the many layers of dressed on top of each other not to impede movements, the clothes should be of a special anatomical cut and be selected in the appropriate sizes, namely:
Tourism is not a test of strength, but a way to escape from everyday routine, to have an interesting and productive rest. The main thing is to competently organize the trip, collect the right tourist equipment.
In autonomous conditions, experience is invaluable, but without the right equipment you won't get far. You are unlikely to get enough sleep, cook food, or keep warm if you do not have the necessary minimum at hand.
No, if we talk about a critical situation when the backpack is lost, ingenuity decides a lot. But now we are not talking about survival in extreme conditions, but about what tourist equipment should consist of.
The set of personal equipment depends on the purpose, type, duration of the trip, as well as climatic conditions.
But there is a mandatory minimum required in any case:
Add the weight of the food you carry to the weight of your personal camping equipment. It is calculated at the rate of 0.75 kg per day. Approach the choice of personal equipment thoughtfully, because under the weight of an extra burden, you will get tired at the very beginning of the journey.
Mountaineering and rock climbing are the most dangerous types of outdoor activities that require serious preparation.
Add the appropriate equipment to the standard personal set:
Having turned their feet into industrial mountaineering, electricians, painters or installers not only enjoy extreme sports, but also receive a good reward for it. Washing windows and facades of high-rise buildings, installing advertisements or cleaning the roof from snow - this is far from the whole list of tasks assigned to the brave ramps.
After all, you have to work at such heights, from which the average citizen starts an attack of dizziness and nausea (and add here sudden precipitation or gusty wind). It is foolish to believe that it is enough for an industrial climber not to suffer from acrophobia.
Pay attention! Without such qualities as endurance, quick reaction, physical fitness and the presence of special equipment, there is nothing to do at altitude.
Having appeared at the beginning of the twentieth century, industrial mountaineering practically did not develop. The profession became in demand later, when new technologies of construction, repair of buildings and structures were mastered.
The profession of an industrial climber implies the implementation of high-altitude work at industrial and other facilities using special technology. To the place of work, promalps climb/descend with the help of a rope or other climbing methods of movement, belay.
Armed with equipment, professionals perform tasks of any complexity that are not feasible in any other way (the customer no longer needs expensive rent, installation of scaffolding, the use of construction mechanisms and aerial platforms, as well as stopping production). Yes, working at a height is not cheap, however, it is more profitable than renting complex equipment.
The history of industrial mountaineering began in 1930. During the construction of the Hoover Dam (America), people faced a seemingly insoluble problem: cleaning and fixing the walls of the canyon from moving rock failed, which was due to the features of the relief.
However, professional miners, “armed” with rope and primitive mining equipment, coped with the task (they made depressions in the rock and laid dynamite in them). Alas, due to insufficient mountaineering training, non-compliance with safety rules and lack of insurance, the operation led to a large number of victims.
During the war with Nazi Germany (in besieged Leningrad), a group of Soviet climbers camouflaged the golden spiers, depriving the enemy of the opportunity to conduct aimed fire.
For many centuries, people have climbed the peaks and crossed the passes for military, religious, commercial and scientific purposes. Starting from the 18th century, mountaineering in Europe began to develop as a sport, methods of belaying and descent with a rope began to be developed. The simplest ways of braking the rope for belay were: through a rock ledge with a loop made of a rope and a carabiner, in the snow - through the waist, an ice ax. But such methods were not suitable for steep and steep slopes. And for descent on steep and difficult sections, a different descent method was used: the rope was wrapped around the body or tucked into a carabiner, thereby increasing its friction, thanks to which it was possible to descend in a controlled manner.
In 1912, the German climber Hans Dyulfer first used the method of descending a rope, sitting on it without special descenders. This method made it possible to descend much faster than climbing with belay through the terrain, but at the same time it caused discomfort and required constant monitoring. Therefore, in the USSR, they necessarily insured themselves with a grasping knot (Prusik, Marshara, etc.). Now a rappelling is called descent along a fixed rope with the help of belay and descent devices.
Depending on how the rope is positioned on the human body, braking will also be appropriate:
To assemble such a system, it is advisable to use carabiners of the same shape, the latches of the carabiners should look in different directions.
UIAA Node (UIAA)
One way to knit a UIAA knot is shown:
Reducing the weight of the product is a serious direction in the work of every company producing mountaineering equipment. On any page dedicated to a particular device, after the description of the product and its principle of operation, there are cherished grams. What is it: pure marketing, or are these tens or hundreds of grams really that valuable? Where is the line between the maniacal desire to buy a lighter and more expensive mug (if so in 5) and the real advantages that can be achieved during the ascent by making the equipment lighter? Let's take a systematic approach. Alexander Parfyonov shares his advice.
What opportunities can be provided by lightening equipment:
How can you lighten the weight of the equipment:
Tips for lightening gear
Tip Do not take extra clothes "just in case"
Think of a set of clothes so that nothing is in your backpack "just in case." Ideally, the puff should be the top layer of running clothes (in which you can work: climb as a leader, juggle, knocking out hooks), and not lie in a backpack "in case of an atomic winter."
You can estimate a running set of clothes, height 6900 m, Khan-Tengri
Think, do you really need your favorite membrane jacket or pants in winter if all expected precipitation is in the form of dry snow? Now almost every company has a set of insulated outerwear with a light membrane or dense windproof upper and a layer of insulation 60-100 g/m. It is more practical to use such combined layers of clothing than to separately carry a membrane to protect the delicate fabric of insulation on ascents, where precipitation in the form of snow predominates. Further warming is done by prying layers of clothing under the outer layer.
A set of cams and friends from the smallest to the largest (5.6 BD does not count =))
The US ds 160 visa is the most difficult visa to obtain. The ds 160 form must be correctly completed, and the required package of personal documents must also be collected to successfully obtain a visa. The Ds 160 questionnaire is filled out both for those who will be interviewed at the US Embassy, and for those who apply via the drop-box procedure. How to correctly fill out the ds 160 form for a visa to the United States To fill out Ds 160, you must go through with