The development of civilization is closely related to the development and strengthening of contacts between individual states, nationalities, territories. Numerous - from the very beginning of the development of human society - travel initially played a purely practical role: identifying the nature of neighbors - their friendly or hostile mood - exchanging experience, searching for markets and purchasing goods, etc. In this regard, travels repeated the fate of everyday objects, which gradually acquired, in addition to the utilitarian, an aesthetic function that was insignificant for survival, but important for a person psychologically. So travel over time received a new status - also not playing a special role for the life of a given tribe/city/state, but which turned out to be so significant for each individual person that it is not only not lost to this day, but also continues to be actively used, making up one of the important articles in the development of the economy of virtually any country.
So, in addition to people for whom travel was a professional necessity (seafarers, researchers and scientists, merchants, later - priests), there were people who just wanted to see new lands and get new impressions. There was such a thing as tourism.
Today there are a huge number of types of tourism. According to the distance of travel, local (as a rule, local history) tourism, domestic tourism and international tourism are distinguished. The latter plays the most significant role in the economy, representing one of the most common forms of exchange of services. It has become an important source of income, which is already approaching $ 500 billion a year worldwide.
According to the goals, one can single out entertaining, educational tourism (it can coincide with the previous type of tourism, it can act independently as the goal of scientific survey expeditions), health-improving (it can be entertainment and health-improving - recreational - or sports and health-improving), sports (it can also be an element of a wellness trip program, or it can be a separate goal - for example, ski tourism). Each of these goals contains a number of specifying subparagraphs - types of tourism: for health tourism it is, for example, resort tourism, for sports - hiking (including mountain hiking), cycling, water (rowing, sailing; river, sea, etc.). ). All these types of tourism are often closely intertwined with each other, and it is often difficult to isolate them in their pure form.
Most of the various definitions of tourism boil down to the fact that tourism is a set of relationships, connections and phenomena that accompany the trip and stay of people in places that are not places of their permanent or long-term residence and are not related to their work ... Thus, any type of tourism in one way or another carries cognitive and entertaining elements, in contrast, for example, to professional trips and expeditions, the main purpose of which is to perform a certain work. The desire to see and learn something new is still the main motive of tourist travel. That is why tourism is closely related to the level of development of civilization. The comfort and distance of the proposed journey depends on this level (in the days of carriages, few people would have wanted to go for pleasant impressions from Siberia to the Mediterranean), public awareness of possible places of rest, safety - determined not only by natural conditions, but also by the political situation as in their native country and in the one that is the purpose of the trip, the development of entertainment infrastructure - in general, everything that makes it possible for an interesting pleasant stay and vivid impressions.
Undoubtedly, these parameters have evolved along with human society, defining the features of tourism at this stage of human history, and forming the history of tourism - the history of travel in the most ancient states of the world, the goals and motives of these travels, as well as the formation of tourism as industries from the early Middle Ages to the present day, and defining the motivation for these travels.
It should be noted right away that the period up to the middle of the 19th century is attributed by most researchers to the prehistory of tourism. Travel is not an end in itself, but only a means to an end. The very history of tourism is usually counted from the famous mass (570 people) twenty-mile rail trip with tea, rolls and a brass band, organized in England in 1841 by Thomas Cook. This was the first case of organizing the provision of mass recreation as a single complex of services. Nevertheless, the period preceding this event laid the foundation for the development of recreation infrastructure, the creation of "houses outside the home", therefore, it cannot be discarded when considering the conditions and methods for the emergence and development of tourist travel as a special sphere.
At the beginning of the formation of human society, travel was undoubtedly necessary for the survival of humanity. People periodically moved from place to place in search of food or to ensure their own safety.
Later, when a person began to lead a sedentary lifestyle, travel began to acquire a different meaning. From time immemorial, many travels were motivated by simple human curiosity, for example, the desire to find out what is behind the farthest hill or on the other side of a wide body of water. This type of travel - to learn something, to observe something, to have fun and rest - might not have any definite economic, political or cognitive purpose. It probably had no immediate effect, other than someone's personal interest in the unknown, but its results were as significant then as they are now: some people talk about their adventures, after which other people seek to repeat their experience.
Where to go in 2018: routes. Route from Moscow. Route from St. Petersburg. Routes to the south of Russia. Routes along the golden ring. Traveler reports.
The excursion tour "Secrets of Baikal" begins in Irkutsk and ends in Listvyanka. Excursion tour to the popular places of Lake Baikal in the summer of 2018. Arrivals daily, starting from June 15. Excursions.