Ski tourism is a fascinating type of active recreation. In the conditions of a ski trip, a tourist is in the purest frosty air for a long time. Uniform muscular load, smooth glide, the beauty of winter nature, a quick change of impressions, communication with a team of tourists - all this gives a great charge of positive emotions.
The muscles of the arms, legs, abdomen and back are actively involved in the work of a tourist-skier. Therefore, skiing is an excellent means of general physical training, which will help improve health, become stronger, more enduring, hardened. With good glide, even a beginner skier can easily walk at a speed of 6 - 8 km/h. It should be borne in mind, however, that a weekend ski trip is different from an ordinary ski trip, and preparation for them should be more thorough. In the conditions of a winter hike, tourists are exposed to low temperatures for quite a long time (6 - 8 hours). The path of the group also passes through open, not protected by forest areas of the terrain with a strong wind, along virgin snow. On the way, there may be bushes, rough terrain, forest heaps, snowdrifts. With all this in mind, you should choose camping equipment and equipment.
The basic requirements for the equipment of the tourist skier are:
Bindings are chosen depending on the conditions of the hike and the type of skis. On ordinary recreational skis, it is better to use rigid welded bindings. They are lightweight, comfortable and reliable. For multi-day difficult hikes, rigid welts are not suitable. On these routes, use semi-rigid universal mounts with metal springs. The boot rant in such fastenings is fixed in the cheeks. Such mounts allow you to go hiking in almost any footwear: ski boots, work boots, hiking boots, felt boots. To prevent snow from sticking under the heel of the boot, rubber pads are nailed onto the ski cargo area, preferably made of microporous rubber with a thickness of 2 - 3 mm. Ski poles are better made of duralumin tubes of the "Moscow" type.
Before the hike, skis should be tarred with a special resin. The resin protects the skis from swelling under the influence of moisture, strengthens the wood, improves the connection of ointments with the ski. In case of breakage of skis, bindings, poles, you need to learn how to repair them. To do this, the group must have a repair kit of tools, materials, spare parts: pliers, a screwdriver, a file, an awl, an awl, a light hammer, scissors, a set of ski mounts, rings for poles, a spare ski, plywood, aluminum, tin plates for linings, copper wire and steel, nails, screws, keeper tape.
The best shoe option is hiking boots, which should be one or two sizes larger than the one you are wearing. They should be soaked in grease to make them water-repellent. You need to put on warm coarse-knit woolen socks (1-2 pairs), over which old nylon stockings are put on (to protect the socks from quick wiping). On multi-day hikes on boots, it is recommended to wear shoe covers - anti-snow stockings. They keep shoes, socks and underpants dry when driving in deep, loose snow. The most rational form of shoe covers is in the form of a rectangular bag. Shoe covers are sewn from thin canvas or nylon parachute fabric.
Hiking along mountain trails is not only silence and beautiful landscapes around, on mountain routes you can often face a danger that you need to be prepared for
Mountains are dangerous and require humility and full awareness of the risks. What is considered uncomfortable in the lowlands can be fatal in the mountains.
Types of hazards in the mountains and how to deal with them
Strong winds in the mountains make it difficult to move. With high air pressure, it can be difficult to take a step and take a breath. Especially dangerous are fast gusts of wind, which usually appear unexpectedly in the mountains. Being in wooded areas during strong winds, there is a danger of falling trees or branches.
In winter, the wind creates snow overhangs that cause avalanches. Use previously packaged layered clothing, including hat and gloves. Try to cover your mouth with your hand or a scarf and do not turn your back to the wind, this will make it difficult to breathe. Try to get to the shelter as quickly as possible.
In the mountains, it appears suddenly and after a few minutes it can limit visibility by several steps. The fog can confuse the traveler, it falsely scatters light, and distorts the path of the voice waves. At the same time, with the help of exclamations, it is impossible to correctly determine the distance between those walking along the path.
When hiking in the fog, you must carefully follow the tourist signs and overcome the sections from mark to mark. If, despite your efforts, you lose orientation in the highlands during fog, you need to call for help - this is the safest way out. The phone numbers of the mountain rescue services should be written down before starting the route.
Too high temperatures in the mountains, as well as low temperatures, carries a risk. Low air temperatures cause heat loss, coldness and even frostbite. High temperatures can cause overheating of the body, dehydration, heatstroke, and even temporary loss of vision.
To protect yourself from the cold, you need to provide yourself with good clothing that protects against excessive perspiration and reliable footwear.
144. What should be the place for making a fire:
a) * the campfire site should be no further than 10 meters from the water source;
b) the campfire site must be cleared of grass, leaves, shallow snow;
C) in inclement weather it is necessary to make a fire under a tree, the crown of which must exceed the base of the fire by 6 meters.
145. Which of the following rules will you use when returning home in the evening:
a) * walk along the lighted sidewalk and as close to the edge of the road as possible;
b) take the shortest route through courtyards, landfills and poorly lit places;
C) use passing transport.
146. The introduction of civil defense on the territory of the Russian Federation or in some of its localities begins:
a) with the beginning of the announcement of the mobilization of the adult population;
b) since the announcement or introduction by the President of the Russian Federation of a state of emergency on the territory of the Russian Federation or in some of its localities;
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