Hello dear readers. This article will focus on how you can spend your vacation with health benefits, interesting and active. I will talk about what mountain tourism is like, and what sports directions it includes. What are its "charms" and what equipment you need to have with you so that everything goes smoothly.
Mountain tourism is an active type of recreation. This definition includes activities such as rock climbing, river rafting, expedition treks and more. The essence of this type of tourism is walking in a mountainous area. The name "mountain" is applicable only to those routes that pass at an altitude of over 2500 meters above sea level.
In mountain tourism, there are categories of complexity introduced by the Unified All-Russian Sports Classification of Tourist Routes. Each of them is determined by the length of the route, its duration, the number and level of difficulty of obstacles.
Tourist on a hike
There are 6 categories of difficulty for trekking sites.
The first category is available to everyone, even beginners without preparation. These routes are short, without difficult obstacles, usually in low mountainous areas. Hikes of the first category are not hazardous to health, do not require special training and equipment.
The second category is areas of simple difficulty, covered with ice and snow. The steepness is estimated at 25-30 degrees. Basic training is required to conquer the route.
The third category is snow and ice areas with a steepness of 30-45 degrees, which are of medium difficulty. Real mountaineering begins with it: you need insurance, mountaineering training and equipment.
At present and in the long term, ecotourism looks like a more attractive international market from an economic point of view than ski tourism. The development of potentially more profitable ecotourism requires significantly less investment of money and time and makes it possible to engage primarily small and medium-sized businesses, and not large ones, as in the case of a ski resort.
On the other hand, the development of ecotourism has its own difficulties. In particular, the attraction of the population to the tourism business may meet with misunderstanding among the residents of the region. Moreover, ecotourism does not have to be confined to one mountain plateau to be effective. It should include the entire range of capabilities of the national park and the region as a whole, while the methodology for the implementation of such projects in Kazakhstan has not been worked out.
In any case, taking into account the current situation around the project, when making a decision, one should not be limited to considering the ski resort as an uncontested project for the development of tourism in Almaty and the region.
On October 8-9, Almaty will host the First Eurasian Conference on Ski Resorts: “Development of new tourist destinations for winter tourism”. The purpose of the event is obvious - to provide information support to the ski resort "Kok-Zhailau", which they plan to start building next year. The event is expected to be massive and widely reported in the media. Obviously, there will be a lot of interesting material on the industry, and conclusions will be drawn about the "strategic importance of ski resorts for the national economy."
At the same time, the question of the fate of Kok-Zhailau requires, in our opinion, a somewhat different approach to considering the benefits of the proposed ski resort. There is a practice of project evaluation taking into account the so-called. opportunity costs, when not only the income from the planned enterprise is assessed, but also the efficiency of this enterprise as a whole in comparison with other projects possible under the given conditions and with the same resources. Such an assessment allows you to see not only what the investor of the project will benefit from the implementation of the project, but also what he could get using his capital differently.
This is not an economic assessment of natural resources (although it would not hurt to make such an assessment either), but a comparison of the planned ski resort with an alternative business project in the same tourism industry. This alternative was first publicly announced at the recently held civil hearings "Project" Kok-Zhailau ": Delusion or a scam?", Organized by the informal public movement "Protect Kok-Zhailau" together with the parties ANSDP "Azat" and the environmental union "Tabigat". In one of the speeches, a proposal was made to build the Kok-Zhailau Eco-Park instead of the Kok-Zhailau Ski Resort.
Of course, the opponents of the ski resort, making this proposal, aimed to protect the plateau from unwanted development, however, from the point of view of economic benefits, such a proposal is not devoid of sense.
Part 1. Kazakhstan in the global tourism market. Dynamics of indicators of international tourism, WTO
The proposal of the tourism industry as a kind of replacement for the oil industry is well-grounded, and the point is not even that oil is running out in Kazakhstan. The global market for services is much wider than production: today, 71% of the world GDP is represented by services and only 26% - by production.
Of course, oil production brings more income, however, its volume - about $ 2,382 billion (BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2011) - is comparable to the volume of tourism ($ 1,300 billion in 2012 .), while tourism creates more than 230 million jobs, and, according to the International Labor Organization, only about 5.5 million hired workers are involved in the extraction of crude oil and gas and oil refining (International Labor Office, Working conditions of contract workers in the oil and gas industries, 2010).
In contrast to the “elite” energy market, the threshold for entering the tourism market is much lower, which makes it more “democratic” and allows for the involvement of wide segments of the population: over 1400 travel companies operate in Almaty alone.
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