Boris Marinov

What to do during collaps

safety rules for tourist mountain campaigns and skiing

If you are going to a tourist hike, you should not forget about safety measures in the mountains. Mountains are very dangerous places, especially for residents of large cities that are not adapted to harsh mountain conditions. There are high height differences in the mountains, which also assumes the high precipitates of atmospheric pressure. And on the way you can catch the multiple unpleasant weather phenomena - from rain and snow to a squall wind and blizzards. From the materials of this article you will learn how to protect yourself, being in a mountain campaign.

Security Measures at Mountain Walking Tourism

Before planning a campaign, you will definitely consult on this issue with your doctor. And, of course, do not forget to take a first-aid kit. In this first aid kit, there must be painkillers and antipyretic agents.

First of all, pay attention to the existence of diseases that are contraindicated for any mountain trips.

Also do not forget about the great value selected for the hike.

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Mountain hike shoes should have a thick sole, and clothes are warm enough. Be sure to take woolen things in case of an unexpected cooling.

Hazards in the mountains

Let's look at what dangers in the mountains can be an obstacle to the successful completion of your campaign.

The main risk factors in the mountainous area are: <

  • dangerous natural phenomena;
  • adverse weather conditions;
  • Human factor (insufficient preparedness, ignorance of the route of the campaign, neglect of safety measures, etc. .).
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Summer is time exciting travel and hiking. Thousands of people collect backpacks and leave the stuffy cities in finding new impressions and with nothing with any comparable feeling of complete freedom. However, even if you climbed high in the mountains or hid in the thicket of the forest, this does not mean that you can do absolutely whatever you want.

In this article, we will tell you about the rules of good behavior that must be strictly observed. This information is especially useful for novice hikers or those people who go abroad.

Be careful when approaching cyclists and riders

In general, cyclists should make way for you on footpaths. But you never know what's on the minds of these crazy people, especially when they rush down on their mountain bikes. Therefore, when they approach, it will be wiser to step aside and give them the opportunity to drive safely.

Be even more careful when meeting a rider or equestrian group. Do not make sudden movements, do not try to flirt or feed the horses, as this may scare them.

Slowest - ahead

Group members may have different physical training, so each has its own pace of movement. Strong and inexperienced tourists often run far ahead, leaving the weak and equally inexperienced somewhere behind. As a result, the former often have to stop and wait, while the latter crawl practically without rest, cursing everything in the world and, first of all, their nimble friends. Tension and mutual irritation grows in the group.

To prevent this from happening, you should focus on the weakest participant. Invite him to walk in front so that he can set the pace for the movement of the entire group. It is better to move a little slower, but keep a good mood and a positive attitude among all the participants of the hike.

Although, of course, there may be variations and exceptions to this rule. For example, you can redistribute the load, or invite the fast walkers to head forward to prepare camp and prepare food while the slower ones arrive.

Take care of other travelers

Mountain Safety Rules

Classification of safety rules

The classification of safety rules in the mountains developed by us aims to fill the existing gap. The main feature that underlies it is human activity in the mountains. The classification contains 12 sections covering separate groups of activities.

Each of them formulates safety rules that aim to preserve human health and life. Some rules contain specific recommendations related to a particular activity. For example, in the section “Safety rules for driving in the mountains” specific recommendations for driving in fog, rain, low temperatures, etc. are systematized.

Our classification is not a mechanical summary of various safety guidelines. It was developed on the basis of studying a large number of materials extracted from specific human activities in the mountains, from specific accidents. It also includes some rules on the technique of movement on various forms of mountainous terrain, which are directly related to safety.

1. The chosen route must correspond to the level of training and capabilities of the participants. 2. Thoroughly study the direction of movement, the existing markings, the nature of the relief, difficulties, hazards, water sources, the possibility of leaving the route if necessary. 3. Develop a schedule and determine the order of movement of the group that mobilizes and disciplines people. 4. Do not start a difficult long trek and ascent without preliminary preparation and acclimatization. 5. Before leaving, familiarize yourself with the weather forecast for the period of movement along the route. 6. Do not go out on the route under obviously unfavorable conditions: 2 - 3 days after heavy snowfall, in fog, at low temperatures or a very pronounced avalanche danger. 7. To go out in the dark only with good knowledge of the route, the upcoming long day's march, and in bad weather - during rescue operations. 8. Thoroughly check the equipment, equipment and food, the state of health of the participants, do not take on the route sick, feeling unwell, people who have not fully recovered from the illness. 9. All participants know the dangers and causes leading to misfortune, be able to detect them in a timely manner, avoid an arrogant approach to dangers, observe safety rules. 10. Do not undertake a hike, ascent or expedition without an experienced, authoritative leader who knows the route, and without correctly completed and executed documentation. 11. In unfamiliar terrain, move only along a well-marked route. 12. Go out on the route early in the morning, well equipped, having an adequate supply of food and only after reporting the timetable to the point of the control and rescue service (PKSS), the head of the base or other persons. 13. Take the necessary measures to protect the legs from injury and hypothermia. 14. Start moving only in serviceable (durable, dried) shoes, clothes, socks, mittens.

1. Movement should not be individual, but group, which will ensure mutual assistance of participants on the route. 2. Avoid group division and discipline. Any absence is possible only with the permission of the elder. 3. Each group, regardless of size, should have a well-trained leader with extensive experience and authority. 4. The pace of movement and stops should be appropriate to the level of preparedness and capabilities of the participants, terrain and weather conditions. Avoid unreasonably high speed. 5. Observe the correct mode of exercise, rest, nutrition, drinking regimen, take measures to ensure good thermoregulation of the body. 6. Maintain high discipline and a sense of mutual assistance in the group. 7. Avoid swimming in mountain lakes where there is a danger of drowning or catching a cold. 8. Do not shorten the path due to safety (you can get into an avalanche, slip, fall on stones). 9. Avoid movement in bad weather, fog, darkness, late at night. The main part of the daytime crossing is done in the morning hours. 10. Avoid going up and down slopes and chutes with loose stones. 11. As already mentioned, do not go at night, except for rescue work, when there is a danger of frostbite or for training purposes. 12. Choose a route taking into account specific conditions (structure of snow cover, condition of participants, weather), always preferring a safe route. 13. Greater maneuverability of the group and its individual members should not be achieved by lightening equipment or reducing the number of camping equipment and products.

Fig. 12. Steep slopes and especially gutters, strewn with unstable stones, are dangerous when crossing

14. Not to lose or forget things, so that at one time or another you will not be left without the necessary equipment and equipment. 15. Pay close attention to warning signs in the mountains to avoid being caught in an avalanche or colliding on the ski slope. 16. Avoid any work in avalanche-prone areas, and if necessary, erect special protective structures or systematically dump accumulated snow using explosions or other methods under the guidance of specialists. 17. When driving in the mountains, do not drink alcohol; this will protect the body from harmful consequences and dangerous behavior. 18. To avoid injury, do not collect stones in mountain warehouses. 19. Do not overcome difficult sections without sufficient confidence in the strength of the supports and your own strength. 20. Observe the declared deadline for returning from the route. This mobilizes the participants and facilitates the rescue work in the event of an accident. 21. We repeat, each participant must know and follow the rules of movement in the mountains. 22. In the event of an accident, be able to provide immediate assistance to the victim. 23. Avoid deviating from the planned route and tactics of movement (except in cases of complication of the situation - in order to ensure safety, rescue operations, etc.). 24. Carefully follow the warning signals of danger, quickly and accurately execute the corresponding commands. 25. When driving on unstable stones, steep slopes, slippery surfaces, carefully and correctly put your feet, and if necessary, insure yourself. 26. At the slightest doubt about safety, resort to insurance. 27. If the condition of the group and its equipment deteriorates in a timely manner, move to the nearest camp, settlement, hut along the easiest and safest path. 28. If it is impossible to find a hut - skillfully and in a timely manner to break a reliable bivouac, or move along a safe valley to the nearest settlement, or return along a familiar path back. Sometimes the life of the participants depends on it. 29. When moving in severe frost, make short stops for rest, continuously move fingers, facial muscles, rub open parts of the body slightly, use hops and other movements. Constantly watch for signs of frostbite in comrades. 30. In case of heavy rain or hail, stop in a sheltered place and wait out the bad weather, in case of snow, act taking into account the nature of the relief, snow cover and the state of the group. 31. When driving in fog, in order to avoid loss of orientation, falling into an abyss, falling from a snow cornice, getting into an avalanche, increase attention; constantly monitor the marking of the route, compare it with the map and compass. In case of danger - wait for the fog to dissipate, use a rope. 32. Protect eyes and exposed parts of the body from burns in case of strong solar radiation. 33. When driving in winter conditions: a) start the hike in good weather and no earlier than 2 - 3 days after the snowfall; b) to overcome steep icy slopes without skis, on crampons, cutting down steps or arranging rope rails; c) in difficult areas, firmly attach the skis to the backpack so that they do not interfere with movement (hands are freed and stability increases); d) to start overcoming snowy ridges and snow-covered rivers after thorough reconnaissance, sounding the path with an ice ax or a ski pole, with obligatory belay with a rope from a safe place; e) when driving on a very steep dangerous slope, keep the ice ax in a position comfortable for self-retention, the hand should be in the lanyard; f) avoid planing on steep, unseen or unseeable firn or ice slopes at high speed and without preparation in order to avoid falling into an abyss, cracks, injuries on rocks; g) Avoid driving on snowdrifts located on steep slopes, as well as sliding on grassy slopes, so as not to slip and hit the rocks; h) know that slopes are safer, on which there are a lot of stones and irregularities under the snow, and in their lower part there are bushes. 34. When skiing: a) do not cut the avalanche slope; b) not to overcome a steep icy slope; c) avoid dangerously high speed, making it impossible to own skis; d) in the fog, do not walk along dangerous cornices, gorges, rocks, unknown places; e) when descending from the mountains on skis, carefully monitor that the skis do not catch on the bushes, do not run into a tree, hidden or open stones, so that the stick ring does not catch on a bush or root; f) during prolonged descent in low temperature conditions, protect the face, ears, chest and other parts of the body from frostbite; g) avoid sharp turns, jumps and skis on avalanche slopes. 35. When dumping avalanches by means of explosions: a) be careful in handling explosives; b) the place where the explosion is supposed to take place must have a safe approach; he should not be in danger from an avalanche, naturally descended or artificially caused. When choosing such a place, you need to try to correctly outline the path of the fall of the discharged snow mass; c) the area of ​​the explosion must be closed to visitors. 36. In a thunderstorm: a) descend from the ridge; b) lay down iron objects about ten meters from people; c) do not stand under a single tree, marking posts, on the shore of a reservoir; d) not to run, but to walk slowly; e) the group should disperse; f) do not stop at the edge of the forest and on the terrain through which water flows; g) do not stand near places where there are metal wires; h) if possible, sit on the insulating material; i) remember that not every lightning strike is fatal and vigorous group intervention can prevent disaster. 37. If it is necessary to cross the river: a) first of all, choose the place and time of the crossing; b) correctly determine the place and type of insurance, arrange the members of the group, taking into account their experience, strength and growth; c) have rescue posts during the crossing; d) attach to the rope stretched across the river not with the help of a grasping knot, but with a carabiner at a distance of no more than one elbow from the chest; e) during an overhead crossing, the main rope must be very strong, and an auxiliary rope should be used, with the help of which, in case of need, the stuck person could be pulled back or forward. 38. In case of misfortune, send at least two of the best trained athletes to help. 39. In an emergency, maintain high morale, strong nerves, composure, confidence, ability to act correctly and quickly, without panic. 40. In case of any surprise during the movement, correctly and soberly assess the position and condition of the group, notice further actions. 41. When the strength in the fight against the wind, low temperature is exhausted and the participants are not able to mobilize the remnants of physical and mental strength to overcome the path, it is necessary to quickly find shelter and organize a bivouac. 42. The backpack should fit well. The ends of tent poles, cat teeth and other sharp objects that can injure a comrade who is walking behind should not stick out from it. 43. Do not allow unauthorized abandonment of the marching column or bivouac. 44. Do not cross fast rivers, do not overcome cracks and other obstacles on the route without providing the necessary safety.

Fig. 13. Ascents and descents on steep mountain slopes covered with hard firn are comfortable and safe when done with the use of an ice ax and a rope with increased attention

1. Observe the principle of gradualness when choosing objects for the ascent, excluding the discrepancy between the degree of preparedness of the group and the difficulty of the route. 2. Before using the support, test its strength. 3. The main work of climbing is done with the feet. With the help of the hands, the climber balances, maintains the stability of the body, holding on to the holds that are slightly above the head and not below the waist. 4. The position of the body is dictated by the features of the relief; do not allow frequent deviation of the body from the vertical. 5. When driving on rocks, always observe three points of support, and when passing snow and ice slopes - two points. 6. When climbing, avoid crossing arms and legs, which reduces the stability of the body. 7. Show maximum attention both when climbing to the top and when descending from it. 8. Ensure maximum coordination of actions of all members of the group and especially partners in the bundle. 9. Do not climb without a helmet made of high quality material. 10. When climbing, each climber must have a hammer, 2 - 3 hooks, auxiliary ropes, a dressing bag. 11. When overcoming a smooth inclined slab, in order not to slip, keep the lower leg perpendicular to the rock surface. 12. Avoid unreasonably large distances between the hooks. Drive more hooks in the first half of the rope. 13. Change the leadership of partners to make a careful consideration of the specifics of the site. 14. On very difficult terrain, the one going first must be released from the load. 15. When overcoming technically difficult places, use a double rope, each of the ropes must be at least 9 mm thick. 16. When climbing, do not allow sudden movements, do not lean on your knee. 17. When climbing, it is wise to expend energy. 18. Do not allow too short a length of the rope between partners, which complicates the action, and in the event of a fall - carries away the entire bundle. 19. With top belay, the rope must pass between the hands of the climber and not interfere with the use of holds. 20. The first ligament and the group leader carefully select and process the path of movement. 21. When driving on difficult areas requiring alternate belay, lift in ligaments of 2 - 3 people. 22. When moving in the top three, the middle one, if he is sick, poorly prepared physically or technically, is insured by both the first and the third in the bunch. 23. When driving in a troika on deep loose snow, fragile ice or rock, when the insurance by one person is insufficient, it is advisable for the middle one to go first on the belay of his comrades. Such simultaneous belaying should take into account the direction of travel and the maximum allowable distance between climbers. 24. During a long ascent, a single climber can take the lead in a bunch if: a) the partner goes to the limit of his technical capabilities and is not able to confidently lead the bunch; b) the partner is very tired, lightly injured, or his mental balance is clearly disturbed. 25. At the signal of a stone falling from a steep wall, do not raise your head, press closer to the rock. 26. When going straight up a steep slope, unfold the socks, when traversing - one toe is tilted towards the valley, the other is directed in the direction of movement. 27. When going straight down the snow, lean on your heels and do not lean your body strongly forward, backward or to the sides. 28. For wall ascents, have an auxiliary rescue group. 29. In case of deterioration of conditions on difficult sections, apply additional techniques: the first one going in the second bundle climbs the rope of the first bundle, additional ropes and ladders are hung. 30. In case of snowfall, the ascent is stopped pending its termination, or a descent on the rope is undertaken (at the discretion of the leader); the movement continues with the adoption of additional safety measures (more hooks are hammered, handrails and other devices are used). 31. When moving along the ropes: a) do not stand more than one climber between the two hooks; b) pass the vertical railings with a self-belay using a cords and a grasping knot, spaced at a distance of an elbow from the chest; c) when driving with a grasping knot, do not unhook the railing from the carabiner. 32. In case of danger of being struck by lightning: a) stop ascent and start immediate descent; b) when moving, do not touch the rock, but when stopping, put a coiled rope under you; c) all iron equipment, as mentioned above, should be placed 10-15 m away from the place where people are staying.

Fig. 14. Technically difficult walls are overcome in compliance with all safety measures - using safety ropes, pitons, helmets, etc.

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