Anyone who has managed to travel to distant countries, most likely, can easily remember the special kind of tourists met at the terminals of foreign airports: with tanned, weather-beaten faces, with durable backpacks instead of ordinary suitcase bags - and with covers of all kinds of shapes and sizes. covered with sports brand names.
Remember? Meet: these are extreme sportsmen, fans of one of the fastest growing and most promising types of recreation. The main question of this article sounds like this: where does just "sport" end - and "extreme sport" begins?
Any sport, both extreme and ordinary, is strength exercises, training, overcoming fear, laziness, habits of comfort. Any sport requires physical fitness, willpower and striving for the best results. But it is only in extreme sports that a new component appears - “voluntary risk”. It is his presence that makes the sport exciting, adrenaline-dependent - that is, extreme. Extreme sport is balancing on a certain line between victory and real danger, opposition to the forces of nature, external (objective) and internal (subjective) circumstances.
When practicing, say, swing rowing, the biggest danger is not meeting the standards, and while rafting on mountain rivers on a raft, an athlete, in case of non-compliance with safety rules and with insufficient qualifications, risks his own health. And even life, as it was in winter on the Yurunkash River. The essence of practicing extreme sports is that an extreme sportsman should be able not only to resist the forces of nature and overcome them, but also to be able to assess his strengths and capabilities very accurately.
Extreme sports (for example, delta or paragliding, rafting), associated with an increased level of risk, require from the tourist not only physical, but also psychological preparation, calculation, as well as responsible courage. People consider extreme sports dangerous, but the danger arises only when there is thoughtlessness of actions and the instinct of self-preservation is lost.
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Winter: pristine nature, downhill skiing.
Recently, the winter extreme has begun to gain momentum: such disciplines as gibbing (performing complex figures on springboards and railings) and freeride (skating on virgin lands) have become fashionable among young people. In general, snowboarding and skiing in any of their extreme directions are gaining popularity - in many ski resorts competitions and congresses of pro riders (riding professionals, extreme masters) are held, giving master classes there.
In the 2008-2009 season, apparently, such types of extreme slalom as heli-skiing (throwing on skis to a mountain peak from a helicopter and descending on virgin mountain lands) and heli-board (that the same, but on the "board"). And also snow-kayaking (descent on snow from a mountain ridge on a kayak), which became widespread abroad last year and has already joined the culture of Russian extreme.
True, if, say, Canada and the United States already have more than 4 million owners of snowmobiles, in Russia riding them is only gaining momentum.
We spend our everyday life in constant bustle and annoyance. After all, this is the only way we can survive, trying to keep up with the rapidly running away time. And the long-awaited vacation seems to be just a fabulous dream that may not come true if another collapse at work suddenly happens.
Rest at this pace should be worthwhile. Relaxing on the beach or active and expressive rest, then the choice is yours. But the main thing is to remember that you need to restore all the energy spent during the year. So think carefully about your holiday.
If you want to get away from everyday life, forget about all the problems, in general, get into another world. How about extreme tourism? Yes, exactly his: with a storm of emotions, risk and unforgettable impressions. You just look at the familiar world with different eyes, as you would not have dared before.
An ordinary vacation will not open up so many new and unrealistic experiences for you. Learn to overcome difficult obstacles, discover hidden abilities in yourself that you did not even know about before. Alas, living in urban reality, we lose our knack, turning into robots, repeating the same work every day.
Now there are many types of extreme recreation: parachuting, diving, windsurfing, alpine skiing, snowboarding, hiking, mountaineering and others. In general, the options for extreme are varied. And every day more and more appear. But before embarking on a risky journey, you need to take a little preparation.
Alpine skiing and snowboarding are old-timers of extreme recreation. Rushing down the steep slopes, breathing in the frosty air with your chest and feeling a surge of energy - this is what attracts ski lovers.
Diving is gaining more and more popularity. In order to indulge in this sport, you need to obtain a diving school certificate. Preparation is very important, because you can face critical situations, and after completing the course, you will be absolutely calm. And where do diving enthusiasts go? The most popular places today are Egypt, Thailand, because they are washed by warm seas with beautiful inhabitants and coral reefs. The mysterious and alluring water world has always attracted many travelers.
For rafting, you need to find turbulent rivers and a team of like-minded people. Many go on purpose in search of such rivers, not knowing the exact route. Of today's types of extreme water recreation, windsurfing and just surfing are also popular. They differ in the type of board, in windsurfing a board with a sail and fins is used, and in surfing, just an oval board. Sailing on the waves, you will feel lightness and a feeling of long-awaited freedom.
For those who prefer hiking or, in other words, trekking, there are many fascinating and beautiful routes, although you will have to spend a lot of energy, because crossing a river or hiking in the mountains is a difficult ordeal. Alternatively to hiking, there are cycling, hazardous mountain climbing, and cave trekking.
Speleotourism is a journey through natural caves. Traveling through naturally occurring caves entails a lot of risk. First of all, you need to find an experienced escort who will know the main entrances and exits of the cave.
Of the recently emerging exotic types of extreme recreation, the most famous are trips to the North and South Poles. More and more people want to visit extreme climatic conditions and see northern animals.
1 Naruta Ya. 1 Nolikov V. 1 1 branch of FGBOU VO "Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service" in Nakhodka The article considers the classification of extreme types of tourism (land, water, air and mountain), as well as the definition of extreme tourism.
Differences between extreme tourism and classical (cultural and educational, hunting and fishing, ethnographic, health-improving, business) types of tourism are described. The categories of classic routes, which are usually referred to as extreme, are considered. A list of things that can be used for a general, detailed study of the route is described.
The main stages of the development of extreme routes are analyzed and some rules are described that must be observed during the development and implementation of extreme routes. The features of carrying out extreme routes are considered. Possible goals of a group of tourists are analyzed, on which the choice of the route depends.
Describes the requirements and characteristics that must be possessed by personal, group, or special tourist equipment.
development and implementation of extreme routes. 1 Babkin A. Special types of tourism. Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2008 .-- 252 p.
Currently, adventure tourism is developing quite actively - which combines travel that are associated with active recreation and movement in nature, with the goal of obtaining new impressions, sensations, achieving sports results and improving the tourist's physical shape. A special type of adventure tourism is extreme tourism, which is gaining momentum all over the world, and in Russia. Extreme tourism is one of the types of active recreation, which in one form or another is associated with risk.
Many people yearn to see the beauty of the world under water, ski down a mountain slope or jump from an airplane with a parachute. In Europe, the development of extreme tourism started and became more widespread in the late 1980s - early 1990s.
And in Russia, since the mid-1990s. This type of tourism is becoming more popular every year, tourists generally prefer other types of tourism.
Such tourism directions as excursion, educational, beach, etc. are still popular.
Most likely, this happens because a huge part of tourists do not know what extreme tourism is, how much it all costs, where there is an opportunity to go, and in fact in many cases you do not even need to travel outside your city. Unfortunately, in Russia extreme tourism is not as well developed as in Europe or other parts of the world.
Do not forget the fact that quite recently in Russia tourism and the hospitality industry were given an unacceptably small role, despite the fact that the practice and experience of other countries suggest otherwise.
Problem statement. The demand for various types of extreme tourism in the world is constantly growing, and, consequently, the importance of extreme tourism in the economy of individual countries and regions is increasing. Crimea is exactly the region where there are favorable prerequisites for its development: factors that determine both the development of tourism in general (climate, landscapes, sea recreation, cultural and historical resources), which form the demand for recreation in Crimea, and specific factors that directly ensure the emergence and the functioning of active tourism. The Crimean entertainment industry has recently been betting on extreme tourism. This promising direction is becoming a core business for some operators. However, Crimea does not use even a tenth of its own capabilities. Tours are little publicized and only profit a few months a year. Although, with proper investment, extreme types of tourism can partially solve the problem of seasonal functioning of the Crimean recreational complex.
Considering the above, the purpose of this work is, on the basis of a geographical analysis of the factors of formation and development features of extreme tourism in Crimea, to develop recommendations for improving this branch of tourist activity in order to create an attractive image of Crimea on the international arena.
Previously unclear parts of the general problem. In the classification of tourist travel and their division into types, the purpose of the trip is of paramount importance, on which the functional classification of types of tourism is based. In accordance with this feature, such types of tourism are distinguished as recreational, medical, educational, business, religious, ethnic, ecological, rural, adventure, as well as sports tourism, with which extreme tourism is closely related.
Extreme tourism is a type of sports tourism that, as a rule, requires special training of tourists and consists in overcoming obstacles (hiking, diving, scuba diving, river rafting, climbing rocks with special insurance, etc.) ..). The goal of extreme tours is to experience the thrill.
The extreme types of tourism in recent years in the world include mountaineering, rock climbing, speleotourism, paragliding, mountain tourism on especially dangerous routes, water tourism, rafting on mountain rivers (rafting), mountain climbing, mountain descent skiing, hot air ballooning, exploring in small ultralight airplanes, survival in the wild, etc.
To increase the competitiveness of Crimea, it is necessary to develop new types of tourism, in particular, extreme tourism. Socio-geographical assessment of the potential of the Crimea for the development of extreme tourism is one of the scientific problems of economic geographers. To study it, it will be necessary to identify trends and the level of development of extreme tourism in Crimea.
All the variety of extreme types of tourism are combined into three groups: water, air and mountain types of extreme tourism.
There are several types of extreme water tourism. Diving, wakeboarding and windsurfing have developed in Crimea.
Diving is very popular all over the world. Diving (from English diving, "to dive" - to dive) in translation into Russian means scuba diving. The main components of diving are diving training, organized service for the sale and rental of diving equipment, diving tours and diving safaris.
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Since childhood, we have been surrounded by a romantic halo of stories about polar explorers who have lived for years at autonomous stations in Antarctica, conducting scientific experiments, collecting information about this harsh continent, and also taking care of its "indigenous inhabitants" - penguins.
However, it is not at all necessary to go on long and far from always safe Antarctic expeditions, because you can visit the southern continent as a tourist. Many travel companies provide their clients with a similar service.
People wishing to visit Antarctica can swim to the shores of this continent on a cruise ship or even fly to one of the stations as part of a thematic tour.
Cost. A cruise on a liner with a landing in Antarctica will cost an extreme lover at least 1800 US dollars (start from Patagonia). A ten-day expedition across the continent is much more expensive - from $ 5000.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the leaders of several expeditions argued among themselves, which of them was the first to visit the North Pole. At the moment, the American Robert Peary is considered the discoverer of this point of the Earth, it happened on April 21, 1908. However, it is unlikely that this brave man, who reached the Pole, enduring incredible hardships and applying superhuman efforts, could have assumed that tourist trips would be possible there a century later.
However, anyone can now visit the North Pole to admire the endless fields of ice, as well as travel around the world in just a few seconds.
You can get to the North Pole quickly and safely by plane, icebreaker, or even by vehicles specially prepared for such an expedition.
Cost. A trip to the North Pole on an icebreaker will cost a tourist $ 21,000, and by plane - $ 18,000.
Climbing to the top of Chomolungma is an activity for the strongest and most experienced athletes in the world who have been preparing for this achievement for many years. However, almost anyone can touch this event without long training and hardships, because there are tours to the base camp on Everest.